S. 3930
One Hundred Ninth Congress  of  the United States of  America
AT THE  SECOND  SESSION
Begun and held at the City of Washington on Tuesday, the third day of January, two thousand and six

An Act
To authorize trial by military commission for violations of the law of war,  and  for other purposes.

Be  it  enacted by  the  Senate and   House   of  Representatives  of the United States of America in Congress assembled,

SECTION 1. TABLE   OF   CONTENTS.

(a)  This  Act   may   be   cited   as   the   Military Commissions Act of 2006’’.
(b)  TABLE   OF   CONTENTS

Sec.   1.  Table of contents.
Sec.   2.  Construction of Presidential authority to establish military commissions.
Sec.   3.  Military commissions.
Sec.   4.  Amendments to Uniform Code of Military Justice.
Sec.   5.  Treaty obligations not  establishing grounds for certain claims.
Sec.   6.  Implementation of treaty obligations.
Sec.   7.  Habeas corpus matters.
Sec.   8.  Revisions to Detainee Treatment Act of 2005  relating to protection of certain
Sec.   9.  Review  of judgments of military commissions.
Sec.   10.  Detention covered by  review of decisions of Combatant Status Review  Tribunals of propriety of detention.

SEC.  2. CONSTRUCTION OF  PRESIDENTIAL AUTHORITY TO ESTABLISH MILITARY COMMISSIONS.

The  authority to establish military commissions under chapter 47A  of  title  10,  United States Code,  as  added  by  section  3(a), may  not  be construed to alter or limit the  authority of the President under the  Constitution of the  United States and  laws  of the  United States to establish  military commissions for  areas declared to  be under martial law  or  in  occupied territories  should circumstances so require.

SEC.  3. MILITARY COMMISSIONS.
(a) MILITARY COMMISSIONS.
(1) IN   GENERAL.
Subtitle A of title 10, United States Code, is  amended by  inserting after  chapter 47  the following new chapter:

CHAPTER 47A—MILITARY COMMISSIONS
Subchapter
I. General Provisions ………………………………………………………………………………. 948a
II. Composition of Military Commissions ………………………………………………….  948h
III. Pre-Trial Procedure …………………………………………………………………………..  948q
IV. Trial Procedure …………………………………………………………………………………. 949a
V. Sentences  ………………………………………………………………………………………….  949s
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VI. Post-Trial Procedure and  Review  of Military Commissions …………………   950a
VII. Punitive Matters  …………………………………………………………………………….. 950p

SUBCHAPTER I—GENERAL PROVISIONS
Sec.
948a. Definitions.
948b. Military commissions generally.
948c. Persons subject to military commissions.
948d. Jurisdiction of military commissions.
948e. Annual report to congressional committees.

§ 948a. Definitions
(1)  UNLAWFUL  ENEMY  COMBATANT.

(A) The  term ‘unlawful enemy combatant’ means—

(i) a  person who  has   engaged in  hostilities or  who has purposefully and  materially supported  hostilities against the United  States or   its   co-belligerents who   is not   a  lawful enemy combatant (including a  person  who is  part  of  the   Taliban,  al   Qaeda,  or  associated  forces);

or

(ii)   a  person  who,   before,  on,   or  after  the   date  of the   enactment of  the   Military Commissions Act  of  2006, has  been  determined to  be  an  unlawful enemy combatant by  a Combatant Status Review  Tribunal or  another  competent  tribunal  established  under  the authority  of  the President or the  Secretary of Defense.

(B)   CO-BELLIGERENT.—

In this  paragraph,  the   term  ‘co-belligerent’, with respect to the  United States, means any State or  armed force  joining and  directly engaged with the United States in  hostilities or  directly supporting hostilities against a common enemy.

(2)  LAWFUL  ENEMY  COMBATANT.—

The term ‘lawful  enemy combatant’ means a person who is—

(A)  a  member of the   regular forces  of a  State party engaged in hostilities against the  United States;

(B)  a  member of  a  militia, volunteer corps,   or  organized  resistance   movement  belonging  to a State party engaged in  such hostilities, which   are   under  responsible command, wear  a   fixed distinctive sign recognizable at a distance,  carry  their  arms  openly, and   abide  by   the law of war;

or

(C)  a  member of a  regular armed force  who  professes allegiance  to  a   government  engaged  in   such   hostilities, but  not recognized by the  United States.

(3)  ALIEN.—The term  ‘alien’  means a  person who  is  not a citizen of the  United States.

(4)  CLASSIFIED INFORMATION.—The term ‘classified information’ means the  following:

(A)  Any  information or  material that has  been  determined by the United  States  Government  pursuant  to statute, Executive order, or regulation to require protection against  unauthorized  disclosure for   reasons  of  national security.

(B)  Any  restricted data, as  that term is  defined in section 11  y. of the  Atomic  Energy Act  of 1954  (42  U.S.C. 2014(y)).

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(5)  GENEVA   CONVENTIONS.—The  term  ‘Geneva   Conven- tions’  means the   international  conventions signed at  Geneva on August 12, 1949.

§ 948b. Military commissions generally

(a)  PURPOSE.—
This chapter establishes procedures governing the  use  of military commissions to try alien unlawful enemy combatants engaged in  hostilities against the  United States for  violations of the  law  of war  and  other offenses triable by military commission.

(b)   AUTHORITY FOR  MILITARY  COMMISSIONS  UNDER   THIS CHAPTER.—
The President is  authorized   to    establish  military commissions under  this  chapter for offenses triable by military commission as provided in this chapter.

(c)  CONSTRUCTION   OF   PROVISIONS.—
The procedures  for  military  commissions set   forth  in   this  chapter are   based  upon  the  procedures  for  trial by  general courts-martial under  chapter  47 of  this title (the   Uniform  Code  of  Military Justice).  Chapter 47 of this title does  not,  by its  terms, apply to trial by military commission   except  as   specifically provided  in  this  chapter. The   judicial construction  and   application  of  that  chapter  are   not   binding  on military commissions established under this chapter.

(d)   INAPPLICABILITY    OF    CERTAIN    PROVISIONS.—
(1)  The   following   provisions of this title shall not  apply to  trial  by  military commission under this chapter:

(A) Section 810 (article 10 of the  Uniform Code  of Military Justice), relating to  speedy trial, including any  rule of courts-martial relating to speedy trial.

(B)  Sections 831(a),   (b),  and   (d)  (articles 31(a),   (b),  and (d) of the  Uniform Code of Military Justice), relating to compulsory self-incrimination.

(C) Section 832 (article 32 of the  Uniform Code  of Military Justice), relating to pretrial investigation.

(2)  Other  provisions of  chapter 47  of  this  title  shall apply to  trial  by  military  commission under  this  chapter  only   to  the extent provided by this chapter.

(e)  TREATMENT  OF   RULINGS   AND  PRECEDENTS.—
The  findings, holdings, interpretations,  and  other precedents of military commissions   under this chapter may   not  be  introduced or  considered in any  hearing, trial, or  other proceeding of a  court-martial  convened under chapter 47  of  this title. The  findings, holdings, interpretations,  and   other  precedents  of  military  commissions under this chapter may  not  form  the  basis of any  holding, decision, or  other determination of a court-martial convened under that chapter.

(f)   STATUS OF COMMISSIONS UNDER COMMON ARTICLE   3.—
A military commission established under this chapter is a regularly constituted  court, affording all  the   necessary ‘judicial  guarantees which  are  recognized as  indispensable by civilized peoples’  for purposes  of common Article 3 of the  Geneva Conventions.

(g)   GENEVA CONVENTIONS NOT  ESTABLISHING  SOURCE  OF RIGHTS.—
No alien  unlawful enemy combatant  subject to  trial  by military commission under  this  chapter  may   invoke  the   Geneva Conventions as a source of rights.

§ 948c. Persons subject to military commissions
Any  alien  unlawful enemy combatant  is  subject to  trial  by military commission under this chapter.

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Ԥ
948d. Jurisdiction of military commissions

(a) JURISDICTION.—
A military  commission under this chapter shall have jurisdiction to  try  any  offense  made punishable by  this chapter or  the   law  of  war   when committed by  an  alien unlawful enemy combatant before, on, or after September 11, 2001.

(b) LAWFUL  ENEMY  COMBATANTS.—
Military commissions under this chapter shall not  have jurisdiction over  lawful enemy combatants. Lawful enemy combatants  who  violate the   law   of  war   are subject to chapter 47 of this title. Courts-martial established under that chapter shall have jurisdiction to try  a lawful enemy combatant for any offense  made punishable under this chapter.

(c)  DETERMINATION  OF   UNLAWFUL  ENEMY  COMBATANT  STATUS DISPOSITIVE.—
A finding, whether  before, on,  or  after the  date of the   enactment  of  the   Military  Commissions Act   of   2006,   by   a Combatant Status Review  Tribunal or  another  competent tribunal established under the  authority of the  President or  the  Secretary of Defense that a person is an  unlawful enemy combatant is disposi- tive   for  purposes of  jurisdiction  for  trial by  military  commission under this chapter.

(d)  PUNISHMENTS.—
A military commission under this chapter may,  under such  limitations as  the  Secretary of Defense may  prescribe,  adjudge  any   punishment  not   forbidden  by   this  chapter, including the  penalty of death when authorized under this chapter or the  law of war.

§ 948e. Annual report to congressional committees

(a)  ANNUAL  REPORT  REQUIRED.—
Not later than  December 31 each  year, the  Secretary of Defense shall submit to the  Committees on Armed Services of the  Senate and  the  House of Representatives a  report on  any   trials  conducted by  military  commissions under this chapter during such  year.

(b)  FORM.—
Each report under this section shall be  submitted in unclassified form,  but  may  include a classified annex.

SUBCHAPTER II—COMPOSITION OF MILITARY COMMISSIONS
Sec.
948h. Who may  convene military commissions.
948i. Who may  serve on military commissions.
948j. Military judge  of a military commission.
948k. Detail of trial counsel and  defense counsel.
948l. Detail or employment of reporters and  interpreters.
948m.  Number of members; excuse of members; absent and   additional members.

§ 948h. Who may convene military commissions
Military  commissions under  this  chapter  may   be  convened by  the   Secretary  of  Defense  or  by any   officer   or  official   of  the United States designated by the  Secretary for that purpose.

§ 948i. Who may serve on  military commissions
(a) IN   GENERAL.—
Any commissioned officer of the  armed forces on  active duty is  eligible to  serve on  a  military commission under this chapter.
(b) DETAIL  OF  MEMBERS.—
When convening a military commis- sion   under this  chapter, the   convening authority  shall  detail as members  of  the   commission  such   members  of  the  armed  forces eligible under  subsection (a),  as  in  the   opinion of  the   convening…
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…authority, are  best  qualified for the  duty by reason of age,  education, training,  experience, length of  service, and   judicial temperament. No  member of  an   armed force  is  eligible  to  serve as  a  member of  a  military  commission when  such   member  is  the   accuser  or a  witness for  the   prosecution or  has   acted as  an   investigator  or counsel in the  same case.

(c) EXCUSE  OF  MEMBERS.—
Before a military commission under this  chapter is  assembled  for  the   trial of  a  case,   the  convening authority  may   excuse  a  member  from   participating in  the   case.

§ 948j.  Military judge of a military commission
(a)  DETAIL   OF    MILITARY   JUDGE.—
A  military judge   shall  be detailed to  each  military commission under this chapter. The  Secretary  of Defense  shall  prescribe  regulations   providing  for   the  manner in which  military judges are  so detailed to military commissions. The  military judge  shall preside over  each  military  commission to which  he has  been  detailed.

(b) QUALIFICATIONS.—
A military judge  shall be a commissioned officer  of the  armed forces  who  is a member of the  bar  of a Federal court,  or  a  member  of  the   bar   of  the   highest  court of  a  State, and   who  is  certified  to  be  qualified  for  duty  under  section 826 of  this title (article 26  of  the   Uniform Code  of  Military Justice) as  a military judge  in general courts-martial by the  Judge Advocate General  of  the   armed  force   of  which   such   military  judge   is   a member.

(c)   INELIGIBILITY    OF     CERTAIN    INDIVIDUALS.—
No person   is eligible to  act  as  military judge  in  a  case  of a  military  commission under  this  chapter  if  he  is  the  accuser or  a  witness  or  has   acted as investigator or a counsel in the  same case.

(d)  CONSULTATION  WITH  MEMBERS; INELIGIBILITY   TO  VOTE.—
A  military  judge   detailed  to   a   military  commission   under  this chapter  may   not   consult  with  the   members  of  the   commission except in  the  presence of the  accused (except as otherwise provided in  section 949d   of  this title), trial counsel,  and  defense  counsel, nor may  he vote with the  members of the commission.

(e)  OTHER    DUTIES.—
A commissioned officer  who  is  certified to be qualified for duty as  a military judge  of a military commission under this chapter may  perform such  other duties as  are  assigned to  him   by  or  with the   approval of  the   Judge  Advocate General of the  armed force of which  such  officer  is a member or the  designee of such  Judge Advocate General.

(f)  PROHIBITION    ON    EVALUATION   OF    FITNESS   BY   CONVENING AUTHORITY.—
The convening  authority   of  a   military  commission under this chapter shall not prepare or review any  report concerning the  effectiveness, fitness, or  efficiency of a  military judge  detailed to  the   military  commission which   relates to  his   performance  of duty as a military judge  on the  military commission.

§ 948k. Detail of trial counsel and defense counsel

(a)  DETAIL   OF    COUNSEL    GENERALLY.—
(1) Trial  counsel  and military defense counsel shall be detailed for each  military commission under this chapter.

(2) Assistant trial counsel and  assistant and  associate defense counsel  may   be   detailed  for   a   military  commission under this chapter.

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(3) Military defense counsel for  a  military  commission under this  chapter  shall  be   detailed  as   soon   as   practicable after  the swearing of charges against the  accused.

(4) The  Secretary of Defense shall prescribe regulations  providing for  the  manner in  which  trial counsel and  military defense counsel are detailed for  military commissions under this chapter and   for  the   persons  who   are   authorized  to  detail  such   counsel for such  commissions.

(b)  TRIAL   COUNSEL.—
Subject  to  subsection (e),  trial  counsel detailed for  a  military commission under this chapter must be—

(1)  a  judge   advocate (as  that term is  defined in  section 801   of  this  title  (article 1  of  the   Uniform  Code   of  Military Justice) who—

(A)  is  a  graduate of  an   accredited law   school   or  is a  member of the  bar  of a  Federal court or  of the  highest court of a State;

and

(B)   is   certified  as   competent  to   perform duties as trial  counsel before   general courts-martial  by  the   Judge Advocate General  of  the   armed  force   of  which   he   is  a member;

or

(2) a civilian who—

(A)  is  a  member  of  the   bar   of  a  Federal  court  or of the  highest court of a State;

and

(B)  is  otherwise qualified to  practice before  the  military commission pursuant  to regulations prescribed by the Secretary of Defense.

(c)  MILITARY   DEFENSE    COUNSEL.—
Subject to  subsection  (e), military defense counsel detailed for  a  military  commission under this chapter must be  a  judge   advocate (as   so  defined)  who  is—

(1)  a graduate of an  accredited law  school  or is a member of  the   bar   of  a  Federal  court  or  of  the   highest  court  of  a State;

and

(2)  certified  as   competent  to  perform duties  as   defense counsel before   general courts-martial  by  the   Judge  Advocate General of the  armed force of which  he is a member.

(d)  CHIEF    PROSECUTOR;  CHIEF    DEFENSE    COUNSEL.—

(1) The Chief  Prosecutor in  a military commission under this chapter shall meet the  requirements set  forth in subsection (b)(1).

(2) The  Chief  Defense Counsel in a military commission under this chapter shall meet the   requirements set   forth in  subsection (c)(1).

(e)  INELIGIBILITY   OF    CERTAIN    INDIVIDUALS.—
No person  who has  acted as an  investigator, military judge, or member of a military commission under this chapter in  any  case  may  act  later as  trial counsel or  military  defense counsel in  the   same case.   No  person who  has   acted for  the   prosecution before   a  military  commission under this chapter may  act  later in  the  same case  for  the  defense, nor  may  any  person who has  acted for the  defense before  a military commission under this chapter act  later in  the  same case  for  the prosecution.

§ 948l. Detail or  employment of  reporters and interpreters

(a)  COURT   REPORTERS.—Under  such   regulations as  the   Sec- retary of Defense may  prescribe, the  convening authority of a mili- tary  commission under this chapter shall detail to  or  employ   for the  commission qualified court reporters, who shall make a verbatim…
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…recording  of  the   proceedings  of  and   testimony taken  before   the commission.

(b)  INTERPRETERS.—
Under such   regulations as  the   Secretary of  Defense  may   prescribe, the   convening authority  of  a  military commission under  this  chapter  may   detail to  or  employ   for  the military  commission interpreters   who    shall  interpret   for   the commission and, as  necessary, for trial counsel and  defense counsel and  for the  accused.

(c) TRANSCRIPT; RECORD.—The transcript of a military commis- sion  under this chapter shall be under the  control of the  convening authority  of  the   commission,  who   shall  also   be   responsible  for preparing the  record of the  proceedings.

§ 948m.  Number of   members; excuse  of   members; absent and additional members

(a)  NUMBER   OF   MEMBERS.—
(1) A military commission  under this  chapter shall, except as  provided in  paragraph  (2),  have at least five members.

(2) In a case  in which  the  accused before  a military commission under this chapter may   be  sentenced to  a  penalty of  death, the military commission shall have the  number of members prescribed by section 949m(c)  of this title.

(b)  EXCUSE  OF   MEMBERS.—
No member of a  military  commission  under this chapter may  be absent or excused after the military commission has   been   assembled  for   the   trial  of  a   case   unless excused—

(1) as a result of challenge;

(2)  by  the   military judge   for  physical disability or  other

good cause; or

(3)  by  order of  the   convening authority  for  good  cause.

(c)  ABSENT  AND  ADDITIONAL  MEMBERS.—Whenever a  military commission under  this  chapter  is  reduced  below   the   number  of members  required  by  subsection  (a),   the   trial  may   not   proceed unless the   convening authority  details new  members sufficient to provide not   less   than such   number. The   trial may   proceed with the   new  members present after the   recorded evidence previously introduced  before   the   members  has   been   read  to   the   military commission  in   the   presence  of  the   military  judge,  the   accused (except as  provided in  section 949d  of  this title), and   counsel  for both  sides.

SUBCHAPTER III—PRE-TRIAL PROCEDURE

Sec.
948q. Charges and  specifications.
948r.  Compulsory self-incrimination prohibited; treatment  of statements  obtained by torture and  other statements.
948s. Service of charges.

§ 948q. Charges and specifications
(a) CHARGES  AND SPECIFICATIONS.—
Charges and specifications against  an   accused in  a  military  commission under  this chapter shall  be  signed  by  a  person  subject  to  chapter  47  of  this  title under oath before  a commissioned officer of the  armed forces  authorized to administer oaths and  shall state—

(1)  that the  signer has   personal  knowledge of, or  reason to believe, the  matters set  forth therein; and

(2)  that they are   true in  fact  to  the   best   of the   signer’s knowledge and  belief.S. 3930—8

(b)  NOTICE   TO   ACCUSED.—
Upon the   swearing of the  charges and   specifications in  accordance with  subsection  (a),  the  accused shall be informed of the  charges against him  as  soon  as practicable.

§ 948r. Compulsory self-incrimination prohibited; treatment of  statements obtained by  torture and other statements

(a) IN   GENERAL.—
No person shall be required to testify against himself at a proceeding of a military commission under this chapter.

(b)   EXCLUSION    OF    STATEMENTS     OBTAINED    BY    TORTURE.—
A statement  obtained by  use   of  torture  shall not   be  admissible in a  military commission under this chapter, except  against a  person accused of torture as evidence that the  statement was  made.

(c)  STATEMENTS  OBTAINED  BEFORE   ENACTMENT  OF   DETAINEE TREATMENT  ACT   OF   2005.—
A  statement obtained before  December 30,   2005   (the   date  of  the   enactment  of  the   Defense Treatment Act  of  2005)  in  which   the   degree of  coercion is  disputed may   be admitted only if the  military judge  finds  that—

(1) the  totality of the  circumstances renders the  statement reliable and  possessing sufficient probative value;

and

(2)  the  interests of justice would  best  be served by admission of the  statement into  evidence.

(d)  STATEMENTS   OBTAINED   AFTER   ENACTMENT   OF    DETAINEE TREATMENT    ACT      OF     2005.—
A    statement  obtained  on   or   after December  30,   2005   (the   date  of  the   enactment  of  the   Defense Treatment Act of 2005)  in  which  the  degree of coercion is disputed may  be admitted only if the  military judge  finds  that—

(1) the  totality of the  circumstances renders the  statement reliable and  possessing sufficient probative value;

(2)  the  interests of justice would  best  be served by admission of the  statement into  evidence; and

(3) the  interrogation methods used to obtain the  statement do   not   amount  to   cruel,  inhuman,  or   degrading treatment prohibited by  section 1003  of  the   Detainee Treatment  Act  of 2005.

§ 948s. Service of charges
The trial counsel assigned to a case  before  a military commis- sion  under this chapter shall cause to  be  served upon  the  accused and   military  defense  counsel a  copy  of  the   charges upon   which trial is  to  be  had. Such   charges shall be  served in  English and, if appropriate, in  another language that the  accused understands. Such  service shall be made sufficiently in advance of trial to prepare a defense.

SUBCHAPTER IV—TRIAL PROCEDURE
Sec.
949a. Rules.
949b. Unlawfully influencing action of military commission.
949c. Duties of trial counsel and  defense counsel.
949d. Sessions.
949e. Continuances.
949f. Challenges.
949g. Oaths.
949h. Former jeopardy.
949i. Pleas of the  accused.
949j. Opportunity to obtain witnesses and  other evidence.
949k. Defense of lack  of mental responsibility.
949l. Voting  and  rulings.
S. 3930—9
949m. Number of votes  required.
949n. Military commission to announce action.
949o. Record  of trial.

§ 949a. Rules
(a) PROCEDURES  AND RULES  OF  EVIDENCE.—
Pretrial, trial, and post-trial  procedures, including elements and   modes of  proof,  for cases triable  by military  commission under  this  chapter  may  be prescribed by  the   Secretary of  Defense, in consultation with  the  Attorney General. Such   procedures shall, so  far  as  the  Secretary considers practicable  or   consistent  with  military  or   intelligence activities,  apply  the   principles  of  law   and  the   rules  of  evidence in  trial by  general courts-martial.  Such   procedures  and   rules of evidence may  not  be  contrary to  or  inconsistent with  this chapter.

(b)  RULES   FOR  MILITARY   COMMISSION.—
(1)  Notwithstanding any   departures from   the   law   and   the   rules of  evidence  in  trial by  general courts-martial  authorized  by  subsection (a),  the   proce- dures and  rules of evidence in  trials by military commission under this chapter shall include the  following:

(A)  The   accused shall  be  permitted to  present  evidence in   his   defense,  to   cross-examine  the   witnesses  who   testify against him,  and  to examine and  respond to evidence admitted against him   on  the   issue of  guilt or  innocence and   for  sen- tencing, as provided for by this chapter.

(B)  The   accused shall  be  present at all  sessions of  the military  commission (other  than  those  for   deliberations  or voting), except when excluded under  section 949d  of this title.

(C)  The   accused shall  receive the   assistance of  counsel as provided for by section 948k.

(D)  The  accused shall be  permitted to  represent himself, as provided for by paragraph (3).

(2) In establishing procedures and  rules of evidence for military commission proceedings,  the   Secretary of  Defense  may   prescribe the  following provisions:

(A)  Evidence shall  be  admissible  if  the   military  judge determines that  the   evidence would   have probative value  to a reasonable person.

(B) Evidence shall not  be  excluded from  trial by  military commission on  the   grounds that the   evidence was  not  seized pursuant to a search warrant or other authorization.

(C) A statement of the  accused that is otherwise admissible shall  not   be  excluded  from   trial by  military  commission on grounds  of  alleged  coercion or  compulsory self-incrimination so long  as  the  evidence complies with the  provisions of section 948r  of this title.

(D)  Evidence shall be  admitted as  authentic so  long  as—

(i) the  military judge  of the  military commission determines that there is sufficient basis to find  that the  evidence is what it is claimed to be;

and

(ii)   the   military  judge   instructs  the   members  that they may  consider any  issue as  to authentication or identification of  evidence in  determining the   weight, if  any,   to be given  to the  evidence.

(E)(i)  Except as  provided in  clause (ii),  hearsay  evidence not  otherwise admissible under the  rules of evidence applicable in  trial by  general courts-martial may  be  admitted in  a  trial by military commission if the  proponent of the  evidence makes known to  the  adverse party, sufficiently in  advance to  provide…
S.3930—10
…the  adverse party with a fair  opportunity to meet the  evidence, the   intention of  the   proponent to  offer  the   evidence, and   the particulars of the  evidence (including information on  the  gen- eral  circumstances under  which   the   evidence  was   obtained). The  disclosure  of  evidence under  the   preceding sentence  is subject to  the   requirements and   limitations  applicable to  the disclosure  of  classified information  in  section  949j(c)   of  this title.

(ii) Hearsay evidence not  otherwise admissible under the rules of evidence applicable in  trial by  general courts-martial shall  not   be  admitted  in   a   trial  by  military   commission  if the  party opposing the  admission of the  evidence demonstrates that the   evidence is  unreliable or  lacking in  probative value.

(F)   The   military  judge   shall  exclude any   evidence the probative value of which  is substantially outweighed—

(i)   by  the   danger  of  unfair  prejudice,  confusion of the  issues, or misleading the  commission; or

(ii)  by  considerations of undue delay, waste of time, or needless presentation of cumulative evidence.

(3)

(A) The  accused in a military commission under this chapter who   exercises  the   right  to   self-representation under  paragraph (1)(D) shall conform his  deportment and  the  conduct of the  defense to  the   rules  of  evidence,  procedure,  and   decorum  applicable  to trials by military commission.

(B)  Failure of the   accused to  conform to  the   rules described in  subparagraph (A)  may   result in  a  partial or  total  revocation by the  military judge  of the  right of self-representation under para- graph  (1)(D).  In   such   case,   the   detailed  defense  counsel of  the accused or  an  appropriately  authorized  civilian counsel shall per- form the  functions necessary for the  defense.

(c) DELEGATION  OF   AUTHORITY  TO   PRESCRIBE   REGULATIONS.—
The  Secretary of  Defense may   delegate the   authority of  the   Sec- retary to prescribe regulations under this chapter.

(d) NOTIFICATION TO  CONGRESSIONAL COMMITTEES OF CHANGES TO  PROCEDURES.—
Not later than 60 days  before  the  date  on which  any  proposed modification of the   procedures in  effect for  military commissions under this chapter goes  into  effect,  the   Secretary of Defense shall submit to  the  Committee  on  Armed Services of the  Senate  and   the   Committee  on  Armed  Services  of  the   House  of Representatives a report describing the modification.

§ 949b. Unlawfully influencing action of military commission

(a) IN    GENERAL.—
(1) No  authority  convening a  military commission under   this   chapter   may    censure,   reprimand,   or admonish the  military commission, or any  member, military judge, or counsel thereof, with respect to the  findings or sentence adjudged by  the  military commission, or  with respect to  any  other exercises of its or his functions in the  conduct of the  proceedings.

(2) No  person may  attempt to  coerce  or,  by  any  unauthorized means, influence—

(A) the  action of a military commission under this chapter, or  any   member thereof, in  reaching the   findings or  sentence in any  case;

(B) the  action of any  convening, approving, or  reviewing authority with respect to his judicial acts;  or

(C)  the  exercise of professional judgment by  trial counsel or defense counsel.

S. 3930—11 (3)  Paragraphs  (1)  and   (2)  do  not   apply  with  respect  to— 

(A)  general instructional or  informational courses in  military justice if such  courses are  designed solely  for  the  purpose of instructing  members of a  command in  the  substantive and procedural aspects of military commissions;

or

(B) statements and  instructions given  in  open  proceedings by a military judge  or counsel.

(b)  PROHIBITION    ON   CONSIDERATION   OF   ACTIONS   ON   COMMISSION IN  EVALUATION  OF  FITNESS.—In the  preparation of an  effectiveness, fitness, or  efficiency report  or  any  other report or  document used in  whole  or  in  part for  the   purpose of determining whether a   commissioned  officer   of  the   armed  forces   is   qualified  to   be advanced in  grade, or  in  determining the   assignment or  transfer of any  such  officer  or  whether any  such  officer  should be  retained on active duty, no person may—

(1)  consider or  evaluate the   performance of  duty of  any member of a military commission under this chapter; or

(2)   give   a   less   favorable rating  or   evaluation  to   any commissioned officer because of the  zeal  with which  such  officer, in  acting as  counsel, represented any  accused before  a military commission under this chapter.

§ 949c. Duties of trial counsel and defense counsel

(a) TRIAL  COUNSEL.—The trial  counsel of a  military  commis- sion  under this chapter shall prosecute in  the  name of the  United States.

(b)  DEFENSE   COUNSEL.—(1) The  accused shall be  represented in  his   defense  before   a  military commission under  this  chapter as provided in this subsection.

(2)  The   accused  shall  be   represented  by   military  counsel detailed under section 948k  of this title.

(3)  The   accused  may   be  represented  by  civilian  counsel  if retained by the  accused, but  only if such  civilian counsel—

(A) is a United States citizen;

(B)  is  admitted to  the  practice of law  in  a  State, district, or  possession of  the   United States or  before   a  Federal court;

(C) has  not  been  the  subject of any  sanction of disciplinary action  by  any   court,  bar,  or  other  competent  governmental authority for relevant misconduct;

(D) has  been  determined to be eligible for access to classified  information that is classified at the  level  Secret or higher;

and

(E)  has   signed a  written  agreement to  comply   with all applicable regulations or instructions for counsel, including any rules of court for conduct during the  proceedings.

(4)   Civilian  defense  counsel  shall   protect   any    classified information  received during  the   course  of  representation  of  the accused in  accordance with all  applicable law  governing the  protection  of classified information and  may  not  divulge such  information to any  person not authorized to receive it.

(5)  If  the  accused is  represented by  civilian counsel, detailed military counsel shall act as associate counsel.

(6)  The   accused  is  not   entitled  to  be  represented  by  more than one  military  counsel. However, the  person authorized under regulations  prescribed under  section 948k   of  this title to  detail counsel, in  that person’s sole  discretion, may  detail additional military counsel to represent the  accused.

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(7)  Defense counsel may   cross-examine each   witness for  the prosecution who  testifies before   a  military  commission under this chapter.

§ 949d. Sessions

(a)  SESSIONS   WITHOUT  PRESENCE   OF   MEMBERS.—
(1) At  any  time after  the   service  of  charges  which   have  been   referred  for trial by military commission under this chapter, the  military  judge  may  call  the  military commission into  session without the presence of the  members for the  purpose of—

(A) hearing and  determining motions raising defenses or objections  which   are   capable  of  determination without trial of the  issues raised by a plea  of not guilty;

(B)  hearing and   ruling upon   any   matter which   may   be ruled upon  by  the  military judge  under this chapter, whether or   not   the   matter  is   appropriate  for   later  consideration or decision by the  members;

(C) if permitted by regulations prescribed by the  Secretary of Defense, receiving the  pleas of the  accused; and

(D)  performing any  other procedural function which  may be performed by the  military judge  under this chapter or under rules  prescribed pursuant  to   section  949a   of  this  title  and which  does not require the  presence of the  members.

(2)  Except  as   provided  in  subsections  (c)  and   (e),  any   pro- ceedings under paragraph (1) shall—

(A) be  conducted in  the  presence of the  accused, defense counsel, and  trial counsel; and

(B) be made part of the  record.

(b)  PROCEEDINGS    IN   PRESENCE   OF   ACCUSED.—Except as  provided  in subsections (c) and  (e), all proceedings of a military commission  under this chapter, including any  consultation of the  members with the  military judge  or counsel, shall—

(1)  be  in  the   presence  of  the   accused,  defense  counsel, and  trial counsel; and

(2) be made a part of the  record.

(c) DELIBERATION  OR  VOTE  OF  MEMBERS.—When the  members of  a  military  commission under  this  chapter  deliberate  or  vote, only the  members may  be present.

(d)  CLOSURE   OF    PROCEEDINGS.—(1)  The   military judge   may close   to  the   public   all   or  part of  the   proceedings  of  a  military commission under this  chapter, but   only  in  accordance with  this

subsection.

(2)  The  military judge  may  close  to the  public  all  or a  portion of the  proceedings under paragraph (1) only  upon  making a specific finding that such  closure is necessary to—

(A)   protect  information  the    disclosure  of  which    could reasonably be  expected to  cause damage to  the  national security, including intelligence or law enforcement sources, methods, or activities;

or

(B) ensure the  physical safety of individuals.

(3) A finding under paragraph (2) may  be based upon  a presentation,  including a  presentation ex  parte or  in  camera, by  either trial counsel or defense counsel.

(e)  EXCLUSION   OF    ACCUSED   FROM   CERTAIN   PROCEEDINGS.—

The  military judge   may   exclude the   accused from  any   portion of a  proceeding  upon   a  determination that,  after being   warned  by…

S. 3930—13
…the   military  judge, the   accused persists  in  conduct that  justifies exclusion from the  courtroom—

(1) to ensure the  physical safety of individuals;

or

(2) to prevent disruption of the  proceedings by the  accused.

(f) PROTECTION OF  CLASSIFIED INFORMATION.—
(1)       NATIONAL         SECURITY          PRIVILEGE.—

(A) Classified information shall be protected and  is privileged from  disclosure if  disclosure  would   be  detrimental  to  the   national  security. The   rule  in   the   preceding sentence  applies  to  all   stages  of the   proceedings  of  military commissions under  this  chapter.

(B)  The   privilege referred  to  in  subparagraph  (A)  may be claimed by the  head of the  executive or military department or  government  agency concerned based  on  a  finding  by  the head of that department or agency that—

(i) the  information is properly classified;

and

(ii) disclosure of the  information would  be detrimental to the  national security.

(C)   A  person  who   may   claim   the   privilege referred  to in  subparagraph (A) may  authorize a  representative, witness, or  trial  counsel to  claim   the   privilege and   make the   finding described in  subparagraph (B)  on  behalf of  such   person. The authority  of  the   representative,  witness,  or  trial  counsel to do  so  is  presumed in  the  absence of evidence to  the  contrary.

(2) INTRODUCTION OF  CLASSIFIED INFORMATION.—

(A)  ALTERNATIVES  TO  DISCLOSURE.—To protect classified  information from  disclosure, the  military judge, upon motion  of  trial  counsel, shall  authorize,  to   the   extent practicable—

(i)   the   deletion  of  specified items  of  classified information from  documents to  be  introduced as  evidence  before  the  military commission;

(ii)  the   substitution of  a  portion or  summary of the  information for such  classified documents; or

(iii)  the   substitution of  a  statement of  relevant facts   that  the   classified  information  would   tend  to prove.

(B)   PROTECTION   OF    SOURCES,  METHODS,  OR     ACTIVITIES.—
The  military  judge,  upon   motion  of  trial  counsel, shall permit trial counsel to introduce otherwise admissible evidence before   the  military  commission, while   protecting from  disclosure the  sources, methods, or activities by which the   United States  acquired the   evidence  if  the   military judge   finds   that (i)  the   sources, methods, or  activities  by which  the  United States acquired the  evidence are  classified,  and   (ii)  the   evidence is  reliable. The  military  judge may  require trial counsel to present to the  military commission   and   the   defense, to  the   extent  practicable and   consistent  with  national  security, an   unclassified summary of the  sources, methods, or  activities by  which  the  United States acquired the  evidence.

(C)  ASSERTION   OF   NATIONAL  SECURITY  PRIVILEGE   AT TRIAL.—
During   the    examination  of   any    witness, trial counsel  may   object   to  any   question,  line   of  inquiry,  or motion to admit evidence that would  require the  disclosure of classified information.  Following such   an  objection, the military judge  shall take suitable action to safeguard such classified information. Such  action may  include the  review…
S. 3930—14

…of  trial counsel’s  claim   of  privilege by  the   military  judge in   camera  and   on  an   ex  parte  basis, and   the   delay  of proceedings  to  permit  trial  counsel to  consult with the department or agency concerned as to whether the  national security privilege should be asserted.

(3)   CONSIDERATION    OF    PRIVILEGE   AND    RELATED    MATE- RIALS.—
A claim   of  privilege under this  subsection,  and   any materials  submitted in   support  thereof,  shall,  upon   request of  the   Government,  be  considered  by   the   military  judge   in camera and  shall not be disclosed to the accused.

(4) ADDITIONAL   REGULATIONS.—
The Secretary  of  Defense may  prescribe additional regulations, consistent with  this sub- section,  for  the   use   and   protection  of  classified  information during proceedings of military commissions under this chapter. A  report on  any   regulations so  prescribed, or  modified, shall be  submitted  to  the   Committees  on  Armed   Services  of  the  Senate and   the   House  of  Representatives  not  later than 60 days  before  the  date on which  such regulations or modifications, as the  case  may  be, go into  effect.

§ 949e. Continuances
The military judge  in a military commission under this chapter may,   for  reasonable cause, grant  a  continuance to  any   party  for such  time, and  as often,  as may  appear to be just.

§ 949f.  Challenges
(a) CHALLENGES   AUTHORIZED.—The military judge  and  members  of a military commission under this chapter may  be challenged by the  accused or  trial counsel for  cause stated to  the  commission. The  military judge   shall determine the   relevance and   validity of challenges for cause. The  military judge  may  not  receive a challenge to  more   than one  person at  a  time.  Challenges by  trial  counsel shall  ordinarily  be   presented  and   decided  before   those  by   the accused are  offered.

(b) PEREMPTORY   CHALLENGES.—Each accused and  the  trial counsel  are   entitled  to   one   peremptory  challenge.  The   military judge  may  not be challenged except for cause.

(c)  CHALLENGES    AGAINST   ADDITIONAL   MEMBERS.—Whenever additional members are   detailed to  a  military commission under this chapter, and  after any  challenges  for cause against such  addi- tional members are   presented and  decided, each   accused and   the  trial counsel are  entitled to one peremptory challenge against mem-  bers  not previously subject to peremptory challenge.

§ 949g. Oaths
(a) IN   GENERAL.—(1) Before  performing their respective duties in a military commission under this chapter, military judges, mem- bers, trial counsel, defense counsel, reporters, and  interpreters shall take an oath to perform their duties faithfully.

(2)  The  form  of the  oath required by  paragraph (1),  the  time and  place  of the  taking thereof, the  manner of recording the  same, and  whether the  oath shall be  taken for  all  cases in  which  duties are  to  be  performed or  for  a  particular case,  shall be  as  prescribed in  regulations of the  Secretary of Defense. Those  regulations may provide that—

(A)  an   oath  to  perform faithfully  duties  as   a  military judge, trial  counsel, or  defense counsel may   be  taken at any…
S. 3930—15

…time  by  any   judge   advocate  or  other  person  certified to  be qualified or competent for the  duty; and

(B)  if  such   an  oath is  taken, such   oath need   not  again be  taken at the   time the   judge   advocate or  other  person is detailed to that duty.

(b)  WITNESSES.—Each witness  before   a  military  commission under this chapter shall be examined on oath.

§ 949h. Former jeopardy

(a)  IN     GENERAL.—No person  may,   without  his   consent,  be tried by  a  military commission under this chapter a  second time for the  same offense.

(b)   SCOPE   OF    TRIAL.—No  proceeding  in   which   the   accused has   been   found   guilty by  military  commission under this  chapter upon   any   charge  or  specification  is  a  trial in  the   sense  of  this section until  the   finding of  guilty has   become   final   after  review of the  case  has  been  fully completed.

§ 949i. Pleas of the accused

(a) ENTRY OF  PLEA OF  NOT GUILTY.—
If an accused in a military commission under this chapter after a plea  of guilty sets up matter inconsistent with the   plea, or  if  it appears that the  accused has  entered  the   plea   of  guilty through  lack   of  understanding  of  its meaning  and   effect,   or  if  the   accused fails  or  refuses  to  plead, a plea  of not  guilty shall be entered in  the record, and  the  military commission shall  proceed as  though the  accused had   pleaded not guilty.

(b)  FINDING   OF   GUILT  AFTER  GUILTY  PLEA.—
With respect  to any   charge  or  specification  to  which   a  plea   of  guilty has  been made by  the  accused in  a  military commission under this  chapter and   accepted  by  the   military  judge,  a   finding  of  guilty   of  the  charge or specification may  be entered immediately without a vote. The  finding shall constitute the   finding of the   commission  unless the  plea  of guilty is  withdrawn prior to  announcement of  the sen- tence,  in  which   event  the   proceedings shall continue as  though the  accused had  pleaded not guilty.

§ 949j.  Opportunity to  obtain witnesses and other evidence

(a)  RIGHT  OF   DEFENSE   COUNSEL.—
Defense counsel in  a  military commission under this chapter shall have a  reasonable  opportunity to obtain witnesses and  other evidence as  provided in regulations prescribed by the  Secretary of Defense.

(b)  PROCESS   FOR  COMPULSION.—
Process issued in  a  military commission under this chapter to  compel  witnesses to  appear and  testify and  to compel  the  production of other evidence—

(1)  shall be  similar to  that which   courts of  the   United States  having  criminal  jurisdiction may   lawfully issue; and ‘‘(2)  shall run to  any  place  where the  United States shall have jurisdiction thereof.

(c) PROTECTION OF  CLASSIFIED  INFORMATION.—
(1) With  respect to  the   discovery  obligations  of  trial  counsel under  this  section, the   military  judge, upon   motion of  trial  counsel, shall authorize, to the  extent practicable—

(A) the  deletion of specified items of classified information from documents to be made available to the  accused;

(B)   the   substitution  of  a   portion  or   summary  of  the information for such  classified documents;

or
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(C)   the   substitution  of  a  statement  admitting relevant facts  that the  classified information would  tend to prove.

(2)  The   military  judge, upon   motion  of  trial  counsel, shall authorize trial  counsel, in  the  course of complying with  discovery obligations under this section, to protect from  disclosure the  sources, methods, or activities by which  the  United States acquired evidence if the  military judge  finds  that the  sources, methods, or  activities by  which   the  United States acquired such   evidence are  classified. The   military judge   may   require  trial  counsel to  provide,  to  the extent practicable, an unclassified summary of the  sources, methods, or  activities by  which   the   United States  acquired such   evidence.

(d) EXCULPATORY  EVIDENCE.—
(1)  As soon  as  practicable, trial counsel shall disclose to  the  defense the  existence of any  evidence known  to   trial  counsel that  reasonably tends  to   exculpate the accused. Where exculpatory evidence is classified, the  accused shall be  provided with  an  adequate substitute  in  accordance with  the procedures under subsection (c).

(2)  In   this  subsection, the   term  ‘evidence  known  to   trial counsel’,  in  the   case   of  exculpatory evidence, means  exculpatory evidence that  the   prosecution  would   be   required  to   disclose in a trial  by  general  court-martial  under  chapter  47  of  this  title.

§ 949k. Defense of lack of mental responsibility

(a)  AFFIRMATIVE   DEFENSE.—It  is  an   affirmative defense in a  trial  by  military commission under  this  chapter  that,  at  the time of  the   commission  of  the   acts   constituting the   offense, the accused,  as   a  result  of  a  severe  mental  disease  or  defect, was unable to  appreciate the   nature and   quality or  the   wrongfulness of the  acts. Mental disease or  defect  does  not  otherwise constitute a defense.

(b) BURDEN  OF  PROOF.—The accused in  a military commission under this chapter has   the  burden of proving the  defense of lack of mental responsibility by clear and  convincing evidence.

(c)  FINDINGS  FOLLOWING ASSERTION OF  DEFENSE.—Whenever lack  of  mental  responsibility of  the   accused  with  respect  to  an offense   is  properly at  issue in  a  military  commission under  this chapter,  the   military  judge   shall   instruct   the   members  of  the  commission as  to the  defense of lack of mental responsibility under this section and  shall charge them to find the  accused—

(1) guilty;

(2) not guilty; or

(3)  subject to  subsection (d),  not  guilty by  reason of lack of mental responsibility.

(d) MAJORITY VOTE REQUIRED  FOR FINDING.—
The accused shall be found  not  guilty by reason of lack  of mental responsibility under subsection  (c)(3)  only   if  a   majority  of  the   members present  at the   time  the   vote   is  taken determines that  the   defense  of  lack of mental responsibility has  been  established.

§ 949l. Voting and rulings

(a)  VOTE   BY   SECRET    WRITTEN    BALLOT.—
Voting by  members of  a  military commission under this chapter on  the  findings and  on the  sentence shall be by secret written ballot.

(b) RULINGS.—
(1) The  military judge  in  a military commission under this chapter shall rule upon  all  questions of law,  including the  admissibility of evidence and  all  interlocutory questions arising during the  proceedings.

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(2)  Any  ruling made by  the   military judge   upon   a  question of  law  or  an  interlocutory question (other than  the   factual issue of mental responsibility of the  accused) is conclusive and  constitutes the   ruling of the   military  commission. However, a  military  judge may  change his ruling at any  time during the  trial.

(c)   INSTRUCTIONS    PRIOR   TO    VOTE.—Before  a   vote   is   taken of  the   findings of  a  military  commission under this  chapter, the  military judge   shall, in  the   presence of  the   accused  and   counsel, instruct  the  members as  to  the  elements of the  offense  and  charge the  members—

(1)  that the   accused must  be  presumed to  be  innocent until his  guilt is  established by  legal  and  competent evidence beyond a reasonable doubt;

(2) that in  the  case  being  considered, if there is a  reason- able  doubt  as   to  the   guilt  of  the   accused,  the   doubt must be  resolved in  favor  of the  accused and  he  must be  acquitted;

(3)  that, if  there is  reasonable  doubt as   to  the   degree of  guilt, the   finding must  be  in  a  lower   degree as  to  which there is no reasonable doubt; and

(4) that the  burden of proof  to  establish the  guilt of the accused beyond a  reasonable doubt is  upon  the  United States.

§ 949m. Number of votes required

(a)  CONVICTION.—
No person  may   be  convicted by  a  military commission under this chapter of any  offense, except as  provided in  section 949i(b)   of  this title or  by  concurrence of  two-thirds of the  members present at the  time the  vote is taken.

(b) SENTENCES.—

(1) No person may  be sentenced by a military commission to suffer death, except insofar as—

(A)  the   penalty of  death is  expressly authorized under this  chapter or  the   law   of  war   for  an   offense   of  which   the accused has  been  found  guilty;

(B)  trial  counsel expressly sought the   penalty of  death by filing  an appropriate notice in advance of trial;

(C) the  accused is  convicted of the  offense  by  the  concurrence of all  the  members present at the  time the  vote  is taken; and

(D)  all  the  members present at the  time the  vote  is taken concur in the  sentence of death.

(2)  No  person may   be  sentenced to  life  imprisonment, or  to confinement  for  more   than  10  years,  by  a  military  commission under this  chapter except by  the   concurrence of  three-fourths of the  members present at the  time the  vote is taken.

(3) All other sentences shall be determined by a military commission by the  concurrence of two-thirds of the  members present at the  time the  vote is taken.

(c) NUMBER  OF  MEMBERS REQUIRED FOR PENALTY OF  DEATH.— (1)  Except as  provided in  paragraph (2),  in  a  case   in  which   the  penalty of death is  sought, the  number of members of  the military commission under this chapter shall be not less  than 12.

(2) In any  case  described in paragraph (1) in which  12 members are  not  reasonably available because of physical conditions or military  exigencies, the   convening authority  shall  specify   a   lesser number  of  members  for  the   military  commission (but   not   fewer than 9 members), and  the  military commission may  be  assembled, and   the   trial held,   with not  fewer   than the   number of  members so  specified. In  such   a  case,   the   convening authority  shall make…
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…a  detailed written statement, to be appended to the  record, stating why  a  greater number of members were  not  reasonably available.

§ 949n. Military commission to announce action

A  military  commission under this chapter shall announce its findings and  sentence to the  parties as soon as determined.

§ 949o. Record of trial

(a)   RECORD;   AUTHENTICATION.—
Each   military   commission under this chapter shall keep  a  separate,  verbatim, record of the proceedings in  each   case   brought before   it,  and   the   record shall be  authenticated  by  the   signature  of  the   military  judge. If  the record cannot  be  authenticated by  the   military judge   by  reason of  his   death,  disability, or  absence, it  shall be  authenticated  by the  signature of the  trial counsel or by a member of the  commission if  the   trial  counsel is  unable to  authenticate it by  reason of  his death, disability, or  absence. Where appropriate,  and   as  provided in  regulations  prescribed by  the   Secretary of  Defense, the   record of a military commission under this chapter may  contain a classified annex.

(b)  COMPLETE    RECORD   REQUIRED.—
A complete record of  the proceedings  and   testimony  shall  be   prepared  in   every   military commission under this chapter.

(c)  PROVISION   OF    COPY   TO   ACCUSED.—
A  copy  of  the  record of  the   proceedings of  the   military  commission under this  chapter shall  be  given   the   accused as  soon  as  it is  authenticated.  If  the  record contains  classified information,  or  a  classified  annex, the accused shall be  given  a  redacted version of the  record  consistent with the  requirements of section 949d  of this title.  Defense counsel shall have access to  the  unredacted record, as  provided in  regulations prescribed by the  Secretary of Defense.

SUBCHAPTER V—SENTENCES

Sec.
949s. Cruel or unusual punishments prohibited.
949t. Maximum limits.
949u. Execution of confinement.

§ 949s. Cruel or unusual punishments prohibited
Punishment by flogging,  or by branding, marking, or tattooing on  the  body,  or  any  other cruel   or  unusual punishment, may  not be adjudged by a military commission under this chapter or inflicted under this chapter upon   any   person subject to  this chapter. The use  of irons, single or double, except for the  purpose of safe  custody, is prohibited under this chapter.

§ 949t. Maximum limits
The  punishment  which    a   military  commission  under  this chapter may   direct for  an  offense   may   not  exceed   such   limits as the President or Secretary of Defense may  prescribe for that offense.

§ 949u. Execution of confinement
(a)  IN     GENERAL.—Under  such   regulations  as   the   Secretary of Defense may  prescribe, a  sentence of confinement  adjudged  by a   military  commission under  this  chapter  may   be   carried  into execution by confinement—

(1)  in  any  place  of confinement under the  control of any of the  armed forces;

or
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(2)  in  any  penal or correctional institution under the  con- trol   of  the   United States  or  its   allies,  or  which   the   United States may  be allowed to use.

(b)  TREATMENT   DURING   CONFINEMENT    BY   OTHER   THAN   THE ARMED FORCES.—
Persons  confined under  subsection  (a)(2)   in   a penal or  correctional institution not  under the  control of an  armed force  are  subject to  the  same discipline and  treatment as  persons confined or  committed  by  the   courts of  the   United  States  or  of the   State, District of  Columbia, or  place   in  which  the  institution is situated.

SUBCHAPTER VI—POST-TRIAL PROCEDURE AND REVIEW OF MILITARY COMMISSIONS

Sec.
950a. Error of law;  lesser included offense.
950b. Review  by the  convening authority.
950c. Appellate referral; waiver or withdrawal of appeal.
950d. Appeal by the  United States.
950e. Rehearings.
950f. Review  by Court of Military Commission Review.
950g.  Review  by  the  United States Court of Appeals for  the  District of Columbia Circuit and  the  Supreme Court.
950h. Appellate counsel.
950i. Execution of sentence; procedures for execution of sentence of death.
950j. Finality or proceedings, findings, and  sentences.

§ 950a. Error of law;  lesser included offense
(a)   ERROR    OF    LAW.—
A   finding  or   sentence  of  a   military commission under this chapter may   not  be  held  incorrect  on  the  ground of  an   error of  law  unless the   error  materially  prejudices the  substantial rights of the  accused.

(b) LESSER  INCLUDED  OFFENSE.—
Any reviewing authority with the   power   to  approve or  affirm a  finding of  guilty by  a  military commission under  this  chapter  may   approve  or  affirm, instead, so much of the  finding as includes a lesser included offense.

§ 950b. Review by the convening authority

(a) NOTICE  TO  CONVENING   AUTHORITY  OF   FINDINGS   AND  SEN- TENCE.—
The findings and  sentence of a military commission  under this chapter shall be reported in  writing promptly to the convening authority after the  announcement of the  sentence.

(b)   SUBMITTAL     OF     MATTERS     BY    ACCUSED    TO    CONVENING AUTHORITY.—
(1)  The    accused   may    submit   to    the    convening authority matters  for consideration by the  convening authority with respect to the  findings and  the  sentence of the military commission under this chapter.

(2)(A)  Except as  provided in  subparagraph (B),  a  submittal under  paragraph  (1)  shall  be   made  in   writing  within  20   days after the  accused has   been  given  an  authenticated  record of trial under section 949o(c) of this title.

(B)   If  the   accused  shows   that  additional time is   required for  the   accused  to  make  a  submittal  under  paragraph  (1),  the convening authority  may,   for  good  cause,  extend  the   applicable period under  subparagraph  (A)  for  not   more   than an   additional 20 days.

(3)  The   accused  may   waive   his   right to  make  a  submittal to  the   convening authority  under  paragraph  (1).  Such   a  waiver shall be made in writing and  may  not  be revoked. For  the  purposes of subsection (c)(2),  the  time within which  the  accused may  make
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…a  submittal under this subsection shall be  deemed to  have expired upon the   submittal of a  waiver under this paragraph to  the   con- vening authority.

(c)   ACTION    BY    CONVENING     AUTHORITY.—(1) The   authority under  this  subsection to  modify   the   findings and  sentence  of  a military  commission under  this  chapter  is  a  matter of  the   sole discretion and  prerogative of the  convening authority.

(2)(A)  The  convening authority  shall take action on  the   sen- tence of a military commission under this chapter.

(B)  Subject  to   regulations  prescribed  by   the   Secretary  of Defense, action on the  sentence under this paragraph may  be taken only  after consideration of any  matters submitted by  the   accused under subsection (b) or  after the  time for  submitting such  matters expires, whichever is earlier.

(C)  In   taking  action under  this  paragraph,  the   convening authority may,  in his  sole discretion, approve, disapprove, commute, or  suspend  the    sentence  in   whole   or   in   part.  The   convening authority may  not  increase a  sentence beyond that which  is  found by the  military commission.

(3)  The   convening authority  is  not   required  to  take  action on  the   findings  of  a  military  commission under  this  chapter.  If the  convening authority takes action on the  findings, the  convening authority may,  in his sole discretion, may—

(A)  dismiss any   charge or  specification by  setting  aside a finding of guilty thereto; or

(B)  change a  finding of  guilty to  a  charge to  a  finding of  guilty  to  an   offense   that is  a  lesser  included offense   of the  offense  stated in the  charge.

(4)  The   convening authority  shall  serve  on  the   accused  or on  defense  counsel notice  of  any   action taken  by  the   convening authority under this subsection.

(d)  ORDER   OF   REVISION   OR   REHEARING.—(1) Subject to  para- graphs (2) and  (3), the  convening authority of a military commission under  this  chapter  may,  in  his  sole  discretion, order a  proceeding in revision or a rehearing.

(2)(A)  Except as  provided in  subparagraph (B),  a  proceeding in revision may  be ordered by the  convening authority if—

(i)  there is  an  apparent error or  omission in  the   record;

or

(ii)  the   record shows   improper or  inconsistent  action  by the  military commission with respect to the  findings or sentence that can  be rectified without material prejudice to the  substantial  rights of the  accused.

(B) In no case  may  a proceeding in revision—

(i)  reconsider  a  finding  of  not   guilty  of  a  specification or a ruling which  amounts to a finding of not guilty;

(ii) reconsider a finding of not  guilty of any  charge, unless there has   been   a  finding of  guilty under a  specification laid under that  charge, which   sufficiently  alleges  a  violation;

or

(iii)  increase the  severity of the  sentence unless the  sentence prescribed for the  offense  is mandatory.

(3)  A  rehearing may   be  ordered by  the   convening authority if  the   convening authority  disapproves the   findings and   sentence and  states the  reasons for  disapproval of the  findings. If  the  convening authority  disapproves the   finding and   sentence and   does not  order a  rehearing, the   convening authority shall dismiss the charges. A  rehearing as   to  the   findings  may   not   be  ordered  by

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the  convening authority when there is  a  lack  of sufficient evidence in the  record to support the  findings. A rehearing as  to the  sentence may    be   ordered  by   the    convening  authority   if   the    convening authority disapproves the  sentence.

§ 950c. Appellate referral; waiver or  withdrawal of  appeal

(a)  AUTOMATIC REFERRAL  FOR APPELLATE  REVIEW.—Except  as provided under  subsection  (b),  in   each   case   in   which   the   final  decision of  a  military  commission (as  approved by  the  convening authority)  includes  a  finding  of  guilty,  the   convening   authority shall refer the   case  to  the   Court of Military  Commission  Review.  Any  such   referral  shall be  made in  accordance with  procedures prescribed under regulations of the Secretary.

(b)  WAIVER   OF   RIGHT   OF   REVIEW.—(1)  In  each   case  subject to  appellate review under section 950f  of this title, except  a  case in   which   the   sentence  as   approved  under  section  950b   of   this title  extends to  death, the   accused  may   file  with the  convening authority  a  statement  expressly waiving the   right of  the accused to such  review.

(2)  A  waiver under  paragraph  (1)  shall  be  signed  by  both the  accused and  a defense counsel.

(3)  A  waiver under  paragraph  (1)  must  be  filed,   if  at  all, within 10  days  after notice on  the  action is  served on  the  accused or  on  defense counsel under  section 950b(c)(4)   of  this  title.  The convening authority,  for  good  cause,  may   extend  the   period  for such  filing  by not more  than 30 days.

‘‘(c)  WITHDRAWAL   OF   APPEAL.—Except in  a  case  in  which  the sentence as  approved under  section 950b   of  this title  extends  to death, the  accused may  withdraw an appeal at any  time.

(d)   EFFECT   OF    WAIVER    OR    WITHDRAWAL.—A waiver  of   the  right to  appellate  review or  the   withdrawal of  an   appeal  under this section bars review under section 950f of this title.

§ 950d. Appeal by the United States

(a)  INTERLOCUTORY   APPEAL.—(1) Except as  provided in  para- graph (2),  in  a  trial by  military commission under this  chapter, the   United States may  take an  interlocutory appeal to  the   Court of Military Commission Review  of any  order or ruling of the  military judge  that—

(A)   terminates  proceedings of  the   military  commission with respect to a charge or specification;

‘‘(B)  excludes evidence that  is  substantial proof  of  a  fact material in the  proceeding; or

(C)  relates to  a  matter  under subsection (d),  (e),  or  (f) of  section  949d   of  this  title  or  section  949j(c)   of  this  title.

(2)  The   United States  may   not   appeal  under  paragraph  (1) an  order or  ruling that is,  or  amounts to,  a  finding of not  guilty by the  military commission with respect to a charge or specification.

(b)   NOTICE    OF    APPEAL.—
The United  States  shall take  an appeal of an  order or  ruling under subsection (a)  by filing  a  notice of appeal with the   military judge   within five  days   after the   date of such  order or ruling.

(c)  APPEAL.—
An appeal under this section shall be forwarded, by   means  specified  in   regulations  prescribed  the    Secretary  of Defense, directly to  the  Court of Military Commission Review.   In ruling on  an   appeal under  this  section, the   Court may   act   only with respect to matters of law.

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(d)  APPEAL  FROM  ADVERSE  RULING.—The United States  may appeal  an   adverse  ruling  on  an   appeal  under  subsection  (c)  to the   United States  Court of  Appeals for  the   District of  Columbia Circuit  by  filing   a  petition  for  review  in   the   Court   of   Appeals within  10  days   after the   date of  such   ruling.  Review  under  this subsection shall be at the  discretion of the  Court of Appeals.

‘‘§ 950e. Rehearings

(a)  COMPOSITION  OF   MILITARY COMMISSION  FOR  REHEARING.— Each rehearing under this chapter shall take place before  a military commission under  this  chapter  composed of  members  who  were  not   members  of  the   military  commission   which   first  heard  the  case.

(b) SCOPE OF  REHEARING.—(1) Upon  a rehearing—

(A)  the  accused may  not  be tried for any  offense  of which he  was  found  not  guilty by  the  first military commission;

and

(B)  no  sentence in  excess   of  or  more   than the   original sentence may  be imposed unless—

(i)   the   sentence  is  based  upon   a   finding  of  guilty of an  offense  not  considered upon  the  merits in the  original proceedings;

or

(ii)  the  sentence prescribed for  the  offense  is  mandatory.

(2)  Upon  a  rehearing, if the  sentence approved after the  first military  commission was  in  accordance with a  pretrial agreement and   the   accused at  the   rehearing  changes his   plea   with respect to  the  charges or  specifications upon  which  the  pretrial agreement was  based, or  otherwise does  not  comply  with pretrial agreement, the   sentence  as   to   those  charges  or   specifications  may   include any   punishment  not   in  excess   of  that  lawfully adjudged at  the first military commission.

§ 950f.  Review by Court of Military Commission Review

(a)  ESTABLISHMENT.—The Secretary of Defense shall establish a  Court of Military Commission Review   which   shall be  composed of  one  or  more   panels,  and   each   such   panel shall  be  composed of  not  less  than  three appellate military judges. For  the   purpose of  reviewing military  commission decisions under this chapter, the court may   sit   in  panels or  as  a  whole   in  accordance with rules prescribed by the  Secretary.

(b) APPELLATE  MILITARY JUDGES.—The Secretary shall assign appellate military judges to a Court of Military Commission Review. Each appellate military judge  shall meet the  qualifications for mili- tary  judges prescribed by  section 948j(b)   of  this title or  shall  be a  civilian with comparable qualifications. No  person may  be  serve as  an  appellate military judge   in  any   case   in  which   that  person acted as a military judge, counsel, or reviewing official.

(c)  CASES  TO   BE  REVIEWED.—The Court of Military  Commis- sion  Review,  in accordance with procedures prescribed under regula- tions of  the   Secretary, shall  review the   record in  each   case   that is  referred to  the  Court by  the  convening  authority  under section 950c   of  this  title  with respect to  any   matter  of  law   raised  by the  accused.

(d)  SCOPE   OF   REVIEW.—In a  case   reviewed by  the   Court  of Military  Commission Review   under  this  section, the   Court  may act only with respect to matters of law.

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§ 950g. Review by  the United States Court of  Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit and the Supreme Court

(a) EXCLUSIVE  APPELLATE  JURISDICTION.—(1)(A) Except as pro- vided   in  subparagraph  (B),  the   United States  Court of  Appeals for the  District of Columbia Circuit shall have exclusive jurisdiction to determine the  validity of a final  judgment rendered by a military commission (as  approved by  the   convening authority) under this chapter.

(B)  The  Court of Appeals may  not  review the  final  judgment until all   other appeals under  this  chapter have been   waived or exhausted.

(2)   A  petition  for  review must  be  filed   by  the   accused in the   Court  of  Appeals  not   later than 20  days   after the   date  on which—

(A)  written  notice of  the   final   decision  of  the   Court of Military  Commission Review   is  served on  the   accused or  on defense counsel;

or

(B) the  accused submits, in  the  form  prescribed by section 950c  of  this title, a  written  notice waiving the   right of  the accused to review by the  Court of Military Commission Review

under section 950f of this title.

(b)  STANDARD    FOR  REVIEW.—In a  case   reviewed by  it under this  section, the   Court of  Appeals may   act   only  with respect  to matters of law.

(c) SCOPE OF  REVIEW.—The jurisdiction of the  Court of Appeals on  an  appeal under subsection (a)  shall be  limited to  the  consideration of—

(1)  whether  the   final   decision  was   consistent with the standards and  procedures specified in this chapter;

and

(2) to the  extent applicable, the  Constitution and  the  laws

of the  United States.

(d) SUPREME   COURT.—The Supreme Court may  review by writ of certiorari the  final   judgment of the  Court of Appeals pursuant to section 1257 of title 28.

§ 950h. Appellate counsel
(a) APPOINTMENT.—The Secretary of Defense shall, by regula- tion, establish procedures for  the  appointment of appellate counsel for  the  United States and  for  the  accused in  military commissions under this chapter. Appellate counsel shall meet the  qualifications for   counsel  appearing   before    military  commissions under  this chapter.

(b)  REPRESENTATION   OF    UNITED   STATES.—Appellate  counsel appointed under subsection (a)—

(1)  shall represent  the   United States  in  any   appeal  or review proceeding under this chapter before  the  Court of Mili- tary Commission Review;  and

(2) may,  when requested to do so by the  Attorney General in   a  case   arising  under  this  chapter, represent  the   United States before  the  United States Court of Appeals for the  District of Columbia Circuit or the  Supreme Court.

(c)  REPRESENTATION  OF   ACCUSED.—The accused shall be  rep- resented by appellate counsel appointed under subsection (a) before  the  Court of Military Commission Review,  the  United States  Court of Appeals for  the  District of Columbia Circuit, and   the  Supreme Court,  and   by  civilian  counsel  if  retained  by  the   accused.  Any

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such  civilian counsel shall meet the  qualifications under paragraph (3)  of  section  949c(b)   of  this title for  civilian counsel appearing before  military commissions under this chapter and  shall be subject to the  requirements of paragraph (4) of that section.

§ 950i. Execution of  sentence; procedures for   execution  of sentence of death

(a)  IN    GENERAL.—The Secretary  of  Defense is  authorized  to carry out  a  sentence imposed by  a  military commission under this chapter in  accordance with such  procedures as  the  Secretary may prescribe.

(b) EXECUTION  OF  SENTENCE  OF  DEATH  ONLY  UPON  APPROVAL BY  THE PRESIDENT.—If the  sentence of a military commission under this  chapter  extends to  death, that part of the  sentence providing for  death may   not   be  executed until  approved  by  the   President. In   such   a  case,   the   President may   commute,  remit, or  suspend the  sentence, or any  part thereof, as he sees  fit.

(c)  EXECUTION   OF    SENTENCE   OF    DEATH    ONLY   UPON   FINAL JUDGMENT   OF   LEGALITY   OF   PROCEEDINGS.—(1)  If  the  sentence of a  military  commission under  this  chapter  extends to  death, the sentence may   not  be  executed until there is  a  final  judgment as to   the   legality  of  the   proceedings  (and   with   respect  to   death, approval under subsection (b)).

(2) A judgment as to legality of proceedings is final  for purposes of paragraph (1) when—

(A)  the  time for  the  accused to  file  a  petition for  review by  the   Court of  Appeals for  the   District of  Columbia Circuit has   expired and   the   accused has   not   filed   a  timely petition for  such   review and   the   case   is  not   otherwise under  review by that Court; or

(B)  review is  completed in  accordance with the  judgment of  the   United  States  Court  of  Appeals  for   the   District  of Columbia Circuit and—

(i)  a  petition  for  a  writ  of  certiorari  is  not   timely filed;

(ii)  such   a  petition is  denied by  the  Supreme Court;

or

(iii)  review is otherwise completed in  accordance with the  judgment of the  Supreme Court.

(d)  SUSPENSION  OF   SENTENCE.—
The Secretary of the  Defense, or  the   convening authority  acting on  the   case   (if  other than the Secretary),  may   suspend  the   execution  of  any   sentence  or  part thereof in the  case,  except a sentence of death.

§ 950j.  Finality or proceedings, findings, and sentences

(a) FINALITY.—The appellate review of records of trial provided by  this chapter, and   the   proceedings, findings,  and   sentences of military commissions as approved, reviewed, or affirmed as required by  this chapter, are   final   and   conclusive.  Orders publishing the proceedings of military commissions under this chapter are  binding upon   all  departments,  courts, agencies, and   officers  of the  United States, except as otherwise provided by the  President.

(b) PROVISIONS  OF   CHAPTER SOLE  BASIS FOR REVIEW OF  MILI-  TARY   COMMISSION  PROCEDURES   AND ACTIONS.—Except as otherwise provided in  this chapter and   notwithstanding any  other  provision of  law   (including  section  2241   of  title  28   or  any   other   habeas corpus provision), no  court, justice, or  judge  shall  have jurisdiction

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to   hear  or   consider  any   claim   or   cause  of  action  whatsoever, including  any   action  pending  on   or  filed   after  the   date  of  the enactment of  the   Military  Commissions Act  of  2006,   relating  to the  prosecution, trial, or  judgment of a  military commission under this chapter, including challenges to  the  lawfulness of procedures of military commissions under this chapter.

SUBCHAPTER VII—PUNITIVE MATTERS

Sec.

950p.   Statement of substantive offenses.

950q.    Principals.

950r.    Accessory after the fact.

950s.    Conviction of lesser included offense.

950t.    Attempts.

950u.    Solicitation.

950v.    Crimes triable by military commissions.

950w.   Perjury and  obstruction of justice; contempt.

§ 950p. Statement of substantive offenses

(a) PURPOSE.—The provisions of this subchapter codify offenses that have traditionally been  triable by  military commissions. This chapter does   not   establish new   crimes that  did  not   exist  before its  enactment, but  rather codifies  those crimes for trial by military commission.

(b)   EFFECT.—Because   the    provisions   of   this   subchapter (including provisions that incorporate definitions in other provisions of law)  are   declarative of existing law,  they do  not  preclude trial for  crimes that  occurred before   the   date of the   enactment of this chapter.

§ 950q. Principals

Any  person is  punishable as  a  principal under this chapter who—

(1)  commits  an   offense   punishable  by  this  chapter,  or aids, abets,  counsels, commands, or  procures its  commission;

(2)  causes an  act  to  be  done  which   if  directly performed by him  would  be punishable by this chapter; or

(3)  is  a  superior  commander who,   with  regard  to  acts punishable  under  this  chapter,  knew, had   reason  to   know, or should have known, that a subordinate was  about to commit such  acts  or  had  done  so and  who  failed to  take the  necessary and   reasonable measures  to  prevent such   acts   or  to  punish the  perpetrators thereof.

§ 950r. Accessory after the fact

Any   person  subject  to  this  chapter who,   knowing that  an offense   punishable by  this chapter has   been   committed, receives, comforts,  or  assists  the   offender  in   order  to  hinder  or  prevent his   apprehension, trial,  or   punishment  shall  be   punished  as   a military commission under this chapter may  direct.

§ 950s. Conviction of lesser included offense

An  accused  may   be  found   guilty  of  an   offense   necessarily included in  the  offense  charged or  of an  attempt to  commit either the   offense   charged  or  an   attempt to  commit either  the   offense charged or an offense  necessarily included therein.

§ 950t. Attempts

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(a)   IN     GENERAL.—Any person  subject  to   this  chapter   who attempts to  commit any   offense   punishable by  this chapter  shall be  punished  as   a   military  commission under  this  chapter   may  direct.

(b)   SCOPE   OF    OFFENSE.—An  act,   done   with  specific   intent to  commit an  offense  under this chapter, amounting to  more  than mere preparation and   tending, even   though failing,  to  effect   its commission, is an attempt to commit that offense.

(c)  EFFECT   OF    CONSUMMATION.—Any person  subject  to  this chapter  may   be   convicted  of  an   attempt  to   commit an   offense  although it appears on the  trial that the  offense  was consummated.

§ 950u. Solicitation

Any  person  subject  to  this  chapter who   solicits  or  advises another or others to commit one or more  substantive offenses triable by  military  commission under  this  chapter  shall,  if  the   offense solicited or  advised is  attempted or  committed, be  punished with the   punishment  provided for  the   commission of  the   offense, but, if  the   offense   solicited or  advised is  not  committed or  attempted, he  shall be  punished as  a  military commission under this chapter may  direct.

§ 950v. Crimes triable by military commissions

(a) DEFINITIONS  AND CONSTRUCTION.—In this section:

(1)   MILITARY   OBJECTIVE.—The  term  ‘military   objective’

means—

(A) combatants; and

(B) those objects during an armed conflict—

(i)  which, by  their  nature,  location, purpose, or

use,  effectively contribute  to  the  opposing force’s  war-

fighting or war-sustaining capability; and

(ii)  the   total or  partial  destruction, capture,  or

neutralization of which  would  constitute a definite mili-

tary advantage to the  attacker under the  circumstances

at the  time of the  attack.

(2)   PROTECTED     PERSON.—The  term   ‘protected   person’

means any   person entitled  to  protection under  one  or  more

of the  Geneva Conventions, including—

(A)  civilians not  taking an  active part in  hostilities;

(B)  military personnel placed hors  de  combat by sick-

ness, wounds, or detention; and

(C) military medical or religious personnel.

(3)  PROTECTED   PROPERTY.—The term ‘protected  property’

means property specifically protected by  the  law  of war  (such

as   buildings  dedicated  to  religion, education,  art,  science or

charitable  purposes, historic monuments, hospitals, or  places

where the   sick  and   wounded are   collected),  if  such   property

is  not   being   used  for  military  purposes or  is  not   otherwise

a military objective. Such  term includes objects properly identi-

fied  by  one  of the  distinctive emblems of the  Geneva Conven-

tions, but  does  not  include civilian property that  is  a  military

objective.

(4)  CONSTRUCTION.—The intent  specified for  an   offense

under  paragraph  (1),  (2),  (3),  (4),  or   (12)   of  subsection   (b)

precludes  the   applicability  of  such   offense   with  regard  to—

(A) collateral damage; or

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(B)   death,  damage,  or   injury  incident  to   a   lawful attack.

(b) OFFENSES.—The following offenses shall be triable by mili- tary commission under this chapter at any  time without limitation:

(1)  MURDER  OF   PROTECTED  PERSONS.—Any person  subject to  this chapter who  intentionally kills   one  or  more  protected persons shall be  punished by  death or  such  other  punishment as a military commission under this chapter may direct.

(2)   ATTACKING    CIVILIANS.—Any  person  subject  to   this chapter who  intentionally engages in  an  attack upon  a  civilian population  as   such,  or  individual  civilians not  taking  active part  in  hostilities, shall be  punished, if  death  results to  one or  more   of  the   victims,  by  death or  such  other  punishment as  a  military commission under this  chapter  may  direct, and, if death does  not  result to  any  of the  victims, by  such  punish- ment, other than death, as  a  military  commission under this chapter may  direct.

(3)  ATTACKING  CIVILIAN  OBJECTS.—Any person  subject to this chapter who  intentionally  engages in  an  attack upon   a civilian object  that is not  a military objective shall be punished as a military commission under this chapter may  direct.

(4) ATTACKING  PROTECTED  PROPERTY.—Any person subject to  this chapter who  intentionally  engages in  an  attack  upon protected property shall be  punished as  a  military  commission under this chapter may  direct.

(5)  PILLAGING.—Any person  subject to  this  chapter  who intentionally and   in  the   absence of  military  necessity appro- priates or  seizes property for  private or  personal use,  without the  consent of a person with authority to permit such  appropria- tion   or  seizure, shall  be  punished as   a  military  commission under this chapter may  direct.

(6) DENYING  QUARTER.—Any person subject to this chapter who,   with   effective  command  or   control  over   subordinate groups, declares, orders, or otherwise indicates to  those groups that  there  shall be  no  survivors or  surrender  accepted, with the   intent to  threaten an   adversary or  to  conduct hostilities such   that there would  be  no  survivors or  surrender  accepted, shall be punished as  a military  commission  under this chapter may  direct.

(7) TAKING  HOSTAGES.—Any person subject to this chapter who,  having knowingly seized or detained one  or more persons, threatens  to  kill,   injure,  or  continue  to  detain  such  person or  persons with the   intent of  compelling any  nation, person other than  the   hostage, or  group of persons to  act  or  refrain from  acting as  an  explicit or  implicit condition  for  the   safety or  release  of  such   person  or  persons,  shall  be  punished,  if death results to  one  or  more  of the  victims,  by  death or  such  other punishment as  a military commission  under this chapter may  direct, and, if death does  not  result to  any  of the  victims, by such  punishment, other than death, as a military commission under this chapter may  direct.

(8)  EMPLOYING POISON OR  SIMILAR  WEAPONS.—Any person subject to  this chapter who  intentionally, as  a  method of war-  fare, employs a substance  or  weapon that releases a substance that  causes death  or  serious  and   lasting  damage to  health in   the   ordinary   course   of  events,  through  its   asphyxiating, bacteriological, or  toxic  properties, shall be  punished, if death

S. 3930—28

results to  one  or  more  of the  victims, by  death or  such   other punishment as  a  military commission under this chapter may direct, and,  if  death  does   not   result to  any   of  the   victims, by such  punishment, other than death, as a military commission under this chapter may  direct.

(9)  USING  PROTECTED  PERSONS  AS  A  SHIELD.—Any person subject to this chapter who positions, or otherwise takes advan- tage of, a  protected person with the  intent to  shield a  military objective from  attack, or  to  shield,  favor,   or  impede military operations, shall be  punished,  if  death results to  one  or  more  of the  victims, by death or such other punishment as  a military commission under this chapter  may  direct, and, if death does not   result to  any   of  the  victims, by  such   punishment, other than death, as  a  military  commission under this chapter may  direct.

(10) USING  PROTECTED  PROPERTY AS  A  SHIELD.—Any per- son  subject to  this chapter who  positions,  or  otherwise takes advantage of the  location of, protected property with the  intent to  shield a  military  objective  from  attack, or  to  shield, favor,  or  impede military  operations, shall be  punished as  a  military commission under this chapter may  direct.

(11) TORTURE.—

(A) OFFENSE.—Any person subject to this chapter who

commits an  act  specifically intended to inflict severe phys-

ical  or  mental pain or  suffering (other than  pain or  suf-

fering incidental to  lawful sanctions) upon  another person

within his  custody or  physical control for  the   purpose of

obtaining information or  a  confession, punishment, intimi-

dation,  coercion, or  any   reason  based  on  discrimination

of  any   kind,  shall  be  punished,  if  death  results  to  one

or more  of the  victims, by death or such  other punishment

as  a  military commission under this chapter may   direct,

and,  if  death does   not   result to  any   of  the   victims,  by

such  punishment, other than death, as  a  military commis-

sion under this chapter may  direct.

(B)  SEVERE   MENTAL  PAIN  OR   SUFFERING  DEFINED.—

In  this section, the  term ‘severe  mental pain or  suffering’

has   the   meaning  given   that  term in   section  2340(2)   of

title 18.

(12) CRUEL OR  INHUMAN TREATMENT.—

(A) OFFENSE.—Any person subject to this chapter who

commits an  act  intended to inflict severe or serious physical

or  mental pain or  suffering (other than  pain or  suffering

incidental to  lawful sanctions), including serious physical

abuse, upon   another  within his   custody  or  control shall

be  punished, if  death results to  the   victim, by  death  or

such   other  punishment  as   a  military commission under

this chapter may   direct, and, if  death does  not  result  to

the   victim, by  such   punishment, other than  death, as  a

military commission under this chapter may  direct.

(B) DEFINITIONS.—In this paragraph:

(i)  The   term ‘serious  physical pain  or  suffering’

means bodily  injury that involves—

(I) a substantial risk of death;

(II) extreme physical pain;

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(III)  a  burn or  physical disfigurement  of  a serious nature (other than cuts, abrasions, or bruises); or

(IV) significant loss or impairment of the function  of  a   bodily   member,  organ,  or   mental faculty.

(ii)  The   term  ‘severe  mental  pain  or  suffering’ has   the   meaning given   that term in  section  2340(2) of title 18.

(iii)  The  term ‘serious  mental pain or  suffering’ has   the   meaning given   the   term ‘severe  mental pain or suffering’ in section 2340(2)  of title 18, except that—

(I)  the   term ‘serious’  shall replace the   term

‘severe’ where it appears; and

(II)  as   to  conduct occurring after  the   date

of the  enactment of the  Military Commissions Act

of   2006,    the    term  ‘serious   and    non-transitory

mental harm (which need  not  be  prolonged)’  shall

replace the   term ‘prolonged  mental harm’  where

it appears.

(13)  INTENTIONALLY   CAUSING  SERIOUS   BODILY  INJURY.—

(A) OFFENSE.—Any person subject to this chapter who

intentionally  causes serious bodily  injury to  one  or  more

persons, including lawful combatants,  in  violation of  the

law  of  war   shall be  punished, if  death results to  one  or

more   of  the   victims, by  death or  such   other punishment

as  a  military commission under this chapter may   direct,

and,  if  death does   not   result to  any   of  the   victims,  by

such  punishment, other than death, as  a  military commis-

sion under this chapter may  direct.

(B)  SERIOUS   BODILY INJURY  DEFINED.—In this para-

graph, the  term ‘serious  bodily  injury’  means bodily  injury

which  involves—

(i) a substantial risk of death;

(ii) extreme physical pain;

(iii) protracted and  obvious  disfigurement; or

(iv)  protracted loss  or impairment of the  function

of a bodily  member, organ, or mental faculty.

(14) MUTILATING  OR  MAIMING.—Any person subject to this

chapter who intentionally injures one or more  protected persons

by  disfiguring the  person or  persons by  any  mutilation of the

person or  persons, or  by  permanently  disabling any   member,

limb,   or  organ of  the   body  of  the   person or  persons, without

any   legitimate  medical or  dental purpose, shall be  punished,

if  death results  to  one  or  more   of  the   victims,  by  death  or

such   other punishment as  a  military  commission under this

chapter may   direct, and,  if  death does   not   result to  any   of

the  victims, by such  punishment, other than death, as a military

commission under this chapter may  direct.

(15)  MURDER   IN    VIOLATION  OF    THE  LAW    OF    WAR.—Any

person subject to  this chapter who  intentionally kills   one  or

more  persons, including lawful combatants, in  violation of the

law of war  shall be punished by death or such  other punishment

as a military commission under this chapter may  direct.

(16)  DESTRUCTION  OF   PROPERTY IN  VIOLATION OF   THE  LAW

OF   WAR.—Any person subject to  this chapter who  intentionally

destroys property  belonging to  another person in  violation of

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the  law  of war  shall punished as  a  military commission under this chapter may  direct.

(17)  USING   TREACHERY  OR   PERFIDY.—Any person  subject to   this  chapter who,   after  inviting the   confidence   or   belief of one  or  more   persons that they were   entitled to,  or  obliged  to accord, protection under the  law  of war, intentionally makes use  of that  confidence or belief  in killing, injuring, or capturing such   person  or  persons  shall  be   punished,  if  death  results to  one  or  more  of the  victims, by  death or  such  other punish- ment as  a  military commission  under this chapter may  direct, and, if  death does  not   result  to  any   of  the   victims, by  such  punishment, other than death, as  a military commission under this chapter may  direct.

(18)  IMPROPERLY   USING  A   FLAG  OF   TRUCE.—Any  person subject to  this chapter who  uses a  flag  of  truce to  feign   an intention to  negotiate, surrender,  or  otherwise suspend  hos- tilities when there is  no  such  intention shall be  punished as a military commission under this chapter may  direct.

(19) IMPROPERLY  USING A  DISTINCTIVE  EMBLEM.—Any per- son  subject to this chapter who  intentionally uses a distinctive emblem recognized by  the  law  of war  for  combatant purposes in  a  manner prohibited by  the  law  of  war   shall be  punished as a military commission under this chapter may  direct.

(20) INTENTIONALLY  MISTREATING A  DEAD  BODY.—Any per- son   subject  to  this  chapter  who   intentionally mistreats  the body  of a  dead person, without  justification by legitimate mili- tary  necessity, shall  be   punished  as   a  military  commission under this chapter may direct.

(21)  RAPE.—Any person subject to  this chapter who  forc- ibly   or   with  coercion or   threat  of  force   wrongfully invades the   body   of  a  person  by  penetrating, however slightly, the anal  or  genital  opening of  the   victim with  any   part of  the body  of the  accused, or  with any  foreign object,  shall be  pun- ished as  a  military commission under this chapter may  direct.

(22)  SEXUAL   ASSAULT  OR   ABUSE.—Any person  subject to this chapter who  forcibly   or  with  coercion or  threat  of  force engages in  sexual contact with one  or  more  persons, or  causes one   or  more   persons  to  engage  in   sexual   contact, shall  be punished  as   a  military commission under  this  chapter may  direct.

(23) HIJACKING  OR  HAZARDING A VESSEL OR   AIRCRAFT.— Any  person  subject to  this  chapter  who  intentionally  seizes, exercises  unauthorized  control  over,   or   endangers  the   safe navigation of a vessel or aircraft that is not a legitimate military objective shall  be  punished, if  death  results to  one  or  more of the  victims, by death or such  other punishment as  a military commission under this chapter may  direct, and, if death does not   result to  any   of  the   victims,  by  such   punishment, other than death, as  a  military  commission  under this chapter may  direct.

(24)  TERRORISM.—Any person subject to  this chapter who intentionally kills  or  inflicts great bodily  harm on  one  or  more protected  persons,  or   intentionally  engages  in   an   act   that evinces a  wanton disregard for  human life,  in  a  manner  cal- culated  to  influence  or  affect   the   conduct  of  government  or civilian population by  intimidation or  coercion, or  to  retaliate against government conduct, shall be punished, if death results

S. 3930—31

to  one  or  more  of the  victims, by  death or  such  other punish- ment as  a  military commission under this chapter may  direct, and, if  death does  not   result to  any   of  the   victims, by  such punishment, other than death, as  a military commission under this chapter may  direct.

(25) PROVIDING MATERIAL SUPPORT FOR TERRORISM.—

(A) OFFENSE.—
Any person subject to this chapter who provides  material   support   or    resources,   knowing   or intending that  they are   to   be  used  in   preparation   for, or  in  carrying  out,   an   act   of  terrorism  (as   set   forth in paragraph  (24)),   or   who   intentionally provides material support or resources to an  international terrorist organization engaged  in   hostilities  against  the    United  States, knowing that  such   organization has   engaged or  engages in terrorism (as so set  forth), shall be punished as a military commission under this chapter may  direct.

(B)  MATERIAL  SUPPORT   OR   RESOURCES  DEFINED.—
In this paragraph, the   term ‘material  support or  resources’ has   the   meaning given   that term in  section 2339A(b) of title 18.

(26) WRONGFULLY AIDING THE  ENEMY.—
Any person subject to  this  chapter who,   in   breach  of  an   allegiance  or  duty  to the  United States, knowingly and  intentionally aids  an  enemy of the  United States, or one  of the  co-belligerents of the  enemy, shall be punished as  a military commission under this chapter may  direct.

(27) SPYING.—Any person subject to this chapter who with intent or  reason to  believe that it is  to  be  used to  the  injury of  the   United States or  to  the   advantage of  a  foreign power, collects or attempts to collect  information by clandestine means or  while   acting under false  pretenses, for  the  purpose of con- veying   such   information  to  an   enemy  of  the   United States, or  one  of the   co-belligerents of the   enemy, shall be  punished by  death or  such   other punishment as  a  military  commission under this chapter may  direct.

(28) CONSPIRACY.—Any person subject to this chapter who conspires to  commit one  or  more   substantive offenses triable by military commission under this chapter, and  who  knowingly does  any  overt act  to  effect  the  object  of the  conspiracy, shall be  punished, if  death results to  one  or  more   of  the   victims, by  death or  such   other punishment as  a  military  commission under this chapter may   direct, and, if  death does  not  result to  any  of the  victims, by  such   punishment, other than death, as a military commission under this chapter may  direct.

§ 950w. Perjury and obstruction of justice; contempt

(a)    PERJURY      AND    OBSTRUCTION     OF     JUSTICE.—
A    military commission under this chapter may  try  offenses and  impose such  punishment  as   the   military  commission may   direct  for  perjury, false  testimony, or obstruction of justice related to military commis- sions  under this chapter.

(b) CONTEMPT.—
A military commission under this chapter may punish  for  contempt  any   person  who   uses  any   menacing  word, sign,   or  gesture in  its   presence, or  who  disturbs its   proceedings by any  riot  or disorder..

(2) TABLES  OF  CHAPTERS AMENDMENTS.—
The tables of chap-  ters at the   beginning of  subtitle A,  and   at  the  beginning of

S. 3930—32

part II  of subtitle A, of title 10,  United States Code,  are  each amended  by  inserting after  the   item relating  to  chapter  47 the  following new item:

47A. Military Commissions ………………………………………………………………………. 948a.

(b) SUBMITTAL  OF   PROCEDURES  TO   CONGRESS.—
Not later  than 90  days  after the  date of the  enactment of this Act,  the  Secretary of  Defense shall  submit  to  the   Committees  on   Armed  Services of  the   Senate and   the   House of  Representatives a  report setting forth  the   procedures  for  military commissions prescribed under chapter 47A of title 10, United States Code  (as  added by subsection (a)).

SEC.  4. AMENDMENTS TO UNIFORM CODE  OF MILITARY JUSTICE.

(a) CONFORMING  AMENDMENTS.—
Chapter 47 of title 10,  United States Code  (the   Uniform Code  of  Military Justice),  is  amended as follows:

(1) APPLICABILITY  TO  LAWFUL ENEMY COMBATANTS.—
Section 802(a)  (article 2(a))  is  amended by  adding at the  end  the  following  new paragraph:

(13)  Lawful enemy combatants  (as  that term is  defined in  section  948a(2) of  this title) who  violate the   law  of  war..

(2)  EXCLUSION  OF   APPLICABILITY  TO   CHAPTER 47A   COMMISSIONS
—Sections 821,  828,  848,  850(a),   904,  and   906  (articles 21,  28,  48,  50(a),   104,   and   106)  are   amended  by  adding at the   end   the   following  new   sentence:  This  section  does   not apply to  a  military commission established under chapter 47A of this title..

(3) INAPPLICABILITY  OF   REQUIREMENTS  RELATING TO   REGULATIONS—
Section 836 (article 36) is amended—

(A) in  subsection (a), by inserting , except as  provided in  chapter 47A  of  this title,  after but  which   may   not;

and

(B)  in  subsection  (b),  by  inserting before   the   period at  the   end   ,   except  insofar  as   applicable  to   military commissions established under chapter 47A  of this title.

(b)  PUNITIVE     ARTICLE    OF    CONSPIRACY.—
Section  881   of  title 10,  United States Code  (article 81  of the  Uniform Code  of Military Justice), is amended—

(1) by inserting (a) before  Any person;

and

(2)  by  adding at  the   end   the   following  new   subsection:

(b)  Any  person  subject  to  this  chapter who   conspires with any   other  person  to  commit  an   offense   under  the   law   of  war, and   who  knowingly does  an   overt act   to  effect  the   object   of  the conspiracy, shall  be   punished,  if  death  results  to   one   or   more of  the   victims,  by  death  or  such   other  punishment  as   a  courtmartial or  military  commission may  direct, and, if death does  not result to any  of the  victims, by such  punishment, other than death, as a court-martial or military commission may  direct..

SEC.  5. TREATY OBLIGATIONS NOT  ESTABLISHING GROUNDS FOR  CER- TAIN  CLAIMS.

(a)  IN    GENERAL.—No person may  invoke the  Geneva Conven- tions or  any  protocols thereto  in  any  habeas corpus or  other  civil action  or   proceeding  to   which   the   United  States,  or   a   current or  former officer,  employee, member of the  Armed Forces, or  other agent  of  the   United States  is  a  party as   a  source  of  rights  in any  court of the  United States or its States or territories.

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(b) GENEVA  CONVENTIONS  DEFINED.—
In this section, the  term Geneva Conventions means—

(1)  the   Convention for  the   Amelioration of  the   Condition of the  Wounded and  Sick  in  Armed Forces in  the  Field, done at Geneva August 12, 1949 (6 UST 3114);

(2)  the   Convention for  the   Amelioration of  the   Condition of the  Wounded, Sick,  and  Shipwrecked Members of the  Armed Forces at Sea,  done  at Geneva August 12,  1949  (6 UST  3217);

(3) the  Convention Relative to  the  Treatment of Prisoners of  War,   done  at Geneva August 12,  1949  (6  UST  3316);

and

(4)  the   Convention Relative to  the   Protection of  Civilian Persons  in   Time   of  War,   done   at  Geneva August 12,   1949 (6 UST 3516).

SEC.  6. IMPLEMENTATION OF TREATY OBLIGATIONS.

(a) IMPLEMENTATION OF  TREATY OBLIGATIONS.—

(1)  IN    GENERAL.—
The  acts   enumerated in  subsection  (d) of  section 2441  of  title 18,  United States  Code,  as  added  by subsection  (b)  of  this  section, and   in   subsection  (c)  of  this section, constitute violations of common Article 3 of the  Geneva Conventions prohibited by United States law.

(2)  PROHIBITION    ON   GRAVE  BREACHES.—
The  provisions of section 2441  of  title 18,  United States Code,  as  amended  by this  section, fully  satisfy the   obligation under  Article 129  of the  Third Geneva Convention for  the  United States to  provide effective penal sanctions for  grave breaches which  are  encompassed in  common Article 3 in  the  context of an  armed conflict not  of an  international character. No  foreign or  international source  of  law   shall  supply a  basis for  a  rule of  decision in the  courts of the  United States in  interpreting the  prohibitions enumerated in subsection (d) of such  section 2441.

(3) INTERPRETATION BY THE PRESIDENT.—

(A) As provided by the  Constitution and  by this section, the   President has   the   authority for  the   United States  to interpret  the    meaning  and    application  of   the    Geneva Conventions  and    to   promulgate  higher  standards  and administrative regulations for  violations of  treaty  obligations which  are  not  grave breaches of the  Geneva Conventions.

(B) The  President shall issue interpretations described by  subparagraph (A) by  Executive Order published in  the Federal Register.

(C)  Any  Executive Order published under this paragraph shall be  authoritative  (except as  to  grave breaches of  common Article  3)  as  a  matter of  United States  law, in  the   same manner as  other administrative regulations.

(D) Nothing in  this section shall be construed to affect the  constitutional functions and  responsibilities of Congress and  the  judicial branch of the  United States.

(4) DEFINITIONS.—
In this subsection:

(A) GENEVA CONVENTIONS.—
The term Geneva Conventions means—

(i)  the   Convention  for   the   Amelioration  of  the Condition of the  Wounded and   Sick  in  Armed Forces in  the  Field, done  at Geneva August 12,  1949  (6 UST 3217);

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(ii) the  Convention for the  Amelioration of the Condition of the  Wounded, Sick,  and  Shipwrecked Members of the  Armed Forces at Sea,  done  at Geneva August 12, 1949 (6 UST 3217);

(iii)  the   Convention Relative to  the   Treatment of Prisoners of  War,   done   at  Geneva August 12,  1949 (6 UST 3316); and

(iv)  the   Convention Relative to  the   Protection of Civilian  Persons  in   Time   of  War,   done   at  Geneva August 12, 1949 (6 UST 3516).

(B) THIRD  GENEVA  CONVENTION.—The term   Third Geneva  Convention  means the   international  convention referred to in subparagraph (A)(iii).

(b)   REVISION     TO     WAR      CRIMES     OFFENSE     UNDER     FEDERAL

CRIMINAL CODE.—

(1)  IN    GENERAL.—Section  2441  of  title 18,  United States Code, is amended—

(A)  in  subsection  (c),  by  striking paragraph  (3)  and inserting the  following new paragraph (3):

(3)  which   constitutes a  grave breach of  common Article 3 (as  defined in  subsection (d)) when committed in  the  context of  and   in  association with an  armed conflict   not  of  an  international character;

or;

and

(B) by adding at the  end  the  following new  subsection:

(d) COMMON ARTICLE 3 VIOLATIONS.—

(1)  PROHIBITED    CONDUCT.—
In subsection (c)(3),  the   term ‘grave  breach of  common Article  3’  means any   conduct (such conduct constituting  a  grave  breach  of  common Article  3  of the  international conventions done  at Geneva August 12, 1949), as follows:

(A)  TORTURE.—
The act  of a  person who  commits, or conspires   or   attempts  to   commit,   an    act    specifically intended to  inflict severe physical or  mental pain or  suffering (other than  pain or  suffering incidental  to  lawful sanctions) upon  another person within his  custody or physical   control  for  the   purpose  of  obtaining  information  or a  confession, punishment,  intimidation,  coercion, or  any reason based on discrimination of any  kind.

(B)  CRUEL   OR    INHUMAN   TREATMENT.—
The act   of  a person who  commits, or  conspires or  attempts to  commit, an   act   intended  to  inflict  severe  or  serious  physical  or mental pain or suffering (other than pain or suffering incidental  to   lawful  sanctions),  including  serious  physical abuse, upon  another within his custody or control.

(C)  PERFORMING   BIOLOGICAL EXPERIMENTS.—
The act of a  person who  subjects, or  conspires or  attempts to  subject,  one  or  more   persons within his   custody or  physical control to biological experiments without a legitimate medical  or  dental purpose and  in  so doing  endangers the  body or health of such  person or persons.

(D)  MURDER.—
The act  of a  person who  intentionally kills,   or  conspires  or  attempts  to  kill,   or  kills   whether intentionally or unintentionally in the  course of committing any  other offense  under this subsection, one  or  more  persons  taking no active part in the  hostilities, including those placed out   of  combat by  sickness,  wounds, detention,  or any  other cause.

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(E)  MUTILATION   OR   MAIMING.—
The  act   of  a  person who   intentionally  injures,  or   conspires  or   attempts  to injure, or  injures whether intentionally or  unintentionally in  the   course of committing any  other  offense   under this subsection, one  or  more   persons taking  no  active part in the   hostilities,  including  those  placed  out   of  combat  by sickness, wounds, detention,  or  any  other  cause, by  dis- figuring the   person or  persons  by  any mutilation  thereof or  by  permanently disabling any  member, limb,   or  organ of his  body,  without any  legitimate  medical or  dental purpose.

(F) INTENTIONALLY  CAUSING SERIOUS  BODILY  INJURY.—
The  act  of a  person who  intentionally causes,  or  conspires or  attempts to  cause, serious bodily  injury to  one  or  more persons, including lawful combatants, in  violation of  the  law of war.

(G) RAPE.—
The act  of a  person who  forcibly  or  with coercion or threat of force  wrongfully invades, or conspires or attempts to invade, the  body  of a person by penetrating, however slightly, the  anal or  genital opening of the  victim with  any   part of  the   body   of  the   accused,  or  with any foreign object.

(H) SEXUAL  ASSAULT  OR   ABUSE.—
The act  of a  person who  forcibly   or  with  coercion or  threat of  force  engages, or  conspires or  attempts to  engage, in  sexual  contact with one  or  more   persons, or  causes, or  conspires  or  attempts to  cause, one  or  more  persons to  engage in  sexual contact.

(I)   TAKING    HOSTAGES.—
The  act   of  a   person   who, having knowingly seized or  detained one  or  more  persons, threatens to  kill,  injure, or  continue to  detain  such  person or persons with the  intent of compelling any nation, person other than the  hostage, or group of persons to act  or refrain from   acting  as   an   explicit  or  implicit   condition  for  the  safety or release of such  person or persons.

(2)  DEFINITIONS.—
In  the   case   of  an   offense   under  sub- section (a) by reason of subsection (c)(3)—

(A)  the   term ‘severe  mental pain or  suffering’  shall be  applied  for  purposes  of  paragraphs (1)(A)  and   (1)(B) in  accordance with the  meaning given  that term in  section 2340(2)  of this title;

(B)  the   term ‘serious  bodily   injury’  shall be  applied for  purposes of  paragraph (1)(F)  in  accordance with  the meaning given  that term in  section 113(b)(2)  of this title;

(C)  the  term ‘sexual  contact’  shall be  applied for  purposes  of paragraph (1)(G)  in  accordance with the  meaning given  that term in section 2246(3)  of this title;

(D)  the  term ‘serious  physical pain or  suffering’  shall be  applied  for  purposes of  paragraph (1)(B)  as   meaning bodily  injury that involves—

(i) a substantial risk of death;

(ii) extreme physical pain;

(iii)  a burn or physical disfigurement of a serious nature (other than cuts, abrasions, or bruises);

or

(iv)  significant loss  or impairment of the  function of  a   bodily   member,  organ,  or   mental  faculty;

and

(E)  the   term ‘serious  mental pain or  suffering’  shall be  applied for  purposes of paragraph (1)(B)  in  accordance

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with the   meaning given   the   term ‘severe  mental pain or suffering’ (as  defined in section 2340(2)  of this title), except that—

(i) the  term ‘serious’ shall replace the  term ‘severe’ where it appears; and

(ii)  as  to  conduct occurring after the  date of the enactment of  the   Military  Commissions Act  of  2006, the   term  ‘serious   and    non-transitory mental  harm (which need  not  be  prolonged)’  shall replace the  term ‘prolonged mental harm’ where it appears.

(3) INAPPLICABILITY  OF  CERTAIN PROVISIONS WITH RESPECT TO     COLLATERAL   DAMAGE  OR    INCIDENT  OF    LAWFUL   ATTACK.—
The  intent  specified for  the   conduct stated  in  subparagraphs (D),  (E),  and   (F)  or  paragraph (1)  precludes the   applicability of those subparagraphs  to  an  offense   under subsection (a)  by reasons of subsection (c)(3) with respect to—

(A) collateral damage; or

(B)   death,  damage,  or   injury  incident  to   a   lawful attack.

(4)   INAPPLICABILITY    OF    TAKING   HOSTAGES   TO    PRISONER EXCHANGE.—
Paragraph (1)(I) does not  apply to an  offense  under subsection  (a)  by  reason  of  subsection  (c)(3)  in   the   case   of a prisoner exchange during wartime.

(5)  DEFINITION   OF   GRAVE BREACHES.—
The definitions in this subsection are  intended only  to  define the  grave breaches of  common Article  3  and   not  the   full  scope  of  United States obligations under that Article..

(2)  RETROACTIVE   APPLICABILITY.—
The amendments  made by  this  subsection, except as  specified in  subsection  (d)(2)(E) of  section  2441   of  title  18,   United States  Code,   shall take effect   as   of  November  26,   1997,   as   if  enacted  immediately after  the   amendments  made  by  section  583   of  Public  Law 105–118  (as  amended by section 4002(e)(7)  of Public Law  107–273).

(c)     ADDITIONAL  PROHIBITION ON CRUEL, INHUMAN, OR DEGRADING TREATMENT OR  PUNISHMENT.—
(1)  IN    GENERAL.—No individual  in  the   custody or  under the  physical control of the  United States Government, regardless  of nationality or physical location, shall be subject to cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment.

(2) CRUEL, INHUMAN, OR   DEGRADING TREATMENT OR  PUNISHMENT  DEFINED.—
In this subsection, the  term cruel,  inhuman, or  degrading treatment or  punishment  means cruel, unusual, and  inhumane treatment or punishment prohibited by the  Fifth, Eighth,  and   Fourteenth  Amendments to  the   Constitution  of the  United States, as defined in the  United States Reservations, Declarations   and    Understandings   to    the    United   Nations Convention  Against   Torture   and    Other   Forms  of   Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment done  at New York, December 10, 1984.

(3) COMPLIANCE.—
The President shall take action to ensure compliance   with     this      subsection,    including    through     the establishment of administrative rules and  procedures.

SEC.  7. HABEAS CORPUS MATTERS.

(a)  IN   GENERAL.—Section 2241  of title 28,  United States  Code, is  amended by  striking both   the   subsection (e)  added by  section

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1005(e)(1)   of  Public Law   109–148  (119  Stat. 2742)   and   the   sub- section  (e)  added  by  added  by  section  1405(e)(1)   of  Public  Law

109–163 (119 Stat. 3477)  and  inserting the  following new  subsection

(e):

(e)(1)  No  court,  justice,  or  judge   shall  have  jurisdiction to hear or  consider an  application for  a  writ of  habeas  corpus filed by  or  on  behalf of  an   alien detained by  the   United  States  who has   been  determined by  the   United States to  have been  properly detained as  an  enemy combatant or is awaiting such  determination.

(2)  Except as  provided in  paragraphs (2)  and   (3)  of  section 1005(e)   of  the   Detainee Treatment  Act  of  2005   (10  U.S.C.   801 note),   no  court,  justice,  or  judge   shall  have  jurisdiction to  hear or consider any  other action against the  United States or its  agents relating to  any  aspect of the   detention, transfer, treatment, trial, or  conditions of  confinement of  an   alien who  is  or  was   detained by  the   United States  and   has   been   determined  by  the   United States  to  have  been   properly detained  as   an   enemy combatant or is awaiting such  determination..

(b) EFFECTIVE  DATE.—
The amendment  made by  subsection (a) shall take  effect   on  the   date of  the   enactment of  this Act,  and shall  apply to  all   cases,  without  exception, pending  on  or  after the   date of the   enactment of this Act  which   relate to  any  aspect of the  detention, transfer, treatment, trial, or conditions of detention of  an   alien  detained  by  the   United States  since   September  11, 2001.

SEC.   8.  REVISIONS TO  DETAINEE TREATMENT ACT  OF  2005  RELATING TO  PROTECTION OF  CERTAIN  UNITED STATES GOVERN- MENT PERSONNEL.

(a)   COUNSEL     AND   INVESTIGATIONS.—
Section  1004(b)    of   the Detainee  Treatment   Act   of   2005    (42   U.S.C.    2000dd–1(b))   is amended—

(1) by striking may provide and  inserting shall provide; (2) by  inserting or  investigation  after criminal  prosecution; and

(3)  by  inserting whether  before   United States  courts or agencies,  foreign  courts  or  agencies,  or  international  courts or agencies, after described in that subsection.

(b) PROTECTION  OF   PERSONNEL.—
Section 1004  of the  Detainee Treatment Act of 2005 (42 U.S.C.  2000dd–1) shall apply with respect to any  criminal prosecution that—

(1)  relates  to   the   detention  and   interrogation  of  aliens described in such  section;

(2)  is  grounded  in  section  2441(c)(3)   of  title 18,  United States Code;

and

(3)  relates  to   actions  occurring  between  September  11, 2001,  and  December 30, 2005.

SEC.  9. REVIEW OF JUDGMENTS OF MILITARY COMMISSIONS.

Section 1005(e)(3)  of the  Detainee Treatment Act of 2005  (title X  of  Public  Law   109–148;  119   Stat. 2740;   10  U.S.C.   801   note) is amended—

(1) in  subparagraph (A), by  striking pursuant to  Military Commission Order No.  1.  dated August 31,  2005  (or  any  suc- cessor  military order) and  inserting by a military commission under chapter 47A of title 10, United States Code;

(2) by striking subparagraph (B) and  inserting the  following new subparagraph (B):

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(B)  GRANT  OF   REVIEW.—
Review under this  paragraph shall be as of right.;

(3) in subparagraph (C)—

(A) in clause (i)—

(i)  by  striking  pursuant  to  the   military  order and  inserting by a military commission; and

(ii)  by  striking at  Guantanamo Bay,  Cuba;

and

(B) in clause (ii), by striking pursuant to such  military order   and   inserting  by   the   military  commission;

and

(4)  in   subparagraph  (D)(i),  by  striking  specified  in   the military order  and  inserting specified  for  a  military  commission.

SEC.  10. DETENTION COVERED BY REVIEW OF DECISIONS OF COMBAT- ANT   STATUS   REVIEW   TRIBUNALS  OF   PROPRIETY  OF DETENTION.

Section 1005(e)(2)(B)(i) of the  Detainee Treatment Act  of 2005 (title  X  of  Public  Law   109–148;  119   Stat. 2742;   10  U.S.C.   801 note)  is amended by striking the Department of Defense at Guanta- namo Bay, Cuba and  inserting the United States.

Speaker of the  House  of Representatives.

Vice President of the  United States and

President of the  Senate.

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